Penile Cancer

  • 1. What is Penile Cancer
  • Summary Penile cancer is a rare cancer that mostly associates with squamous cell carcinoma of the glans and foreskin of the penis. The risk factors for penile cancer include HPV infection, smoking and also poor hygiene. Introduction Penile cancer is a rare cancer with a prevalence of 0.1 t...
  • 2. Risk factors of Penile Cancer
  • Summary The risk factors for penile cancer include many things such as sexual activity, smoking, poor hygiene and low socioeconomic status. Introduction The major penile cancer risk factors include human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and phimosis​1​. Other risk factors include sexual ...
  • 3. Prevention of penile cancer
  • Summary One can prevent penile cancer using preventive measures such as circumcision, smoking cessation, hygiene education and HPV prevention. Introduction Early detection and treatment may increase the likelihood of preservation of the penis and also provide optimal oncological and functi...
  • 4. Signs and symptoms of Penile Cancer
  • Summary The various signs and symptoms associated with penile cancer include sores or other skin changes, discharge, and also bleeding in the penis. Introduction Penile cancer is a rare cancer type that develops in the penis, in other words, the male genitals, which allow semen and urine t...
  • 5. Diagnosis of Penile Cancer
  • Summary Diagnosis of penile cancer involves clinical appearance and history of penile cancer, imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, MRI, CT and PET scan, and penile biopsy. Introduction Due to poor public awareness and feelings of shame, the majority of penile cancer patients have a ...
  • 6. Stages and Grades of Penile Cancer
  • Summary Staging of penile cancer is performed according to the guidelines recommended by the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC), which stages the cancer base on the location of the primary tumour, clinical and pathological status of regional lymph nodes, and also the presence of metast...
  • 7. Types of treatment of penile cancer
  • Summary Doctors usually treat large penile tumours through surgery; while they prescribe alternative options; such as radiotherapy depending on the size and stage of the tumour and condition of the patients. Introduction Larger tumours of the penis that penetrate the corpus cavernosum or n...
  • 8. Coping with treatment of penile cancer
  • Summary Patients with penile cancer face significant challenges whilst undergoing treatment for cancer. Some of the common difficulties faced by patients due to cancer treatment include coping with the treatment of cancer; emotional and mental aspects of cancer treatment; the financial burden of...
  • 9. Follow up care for penile cancer patients
  • Summary Once primary treatment for penile cancer is complete survivors usually visit a doctor or cancer care provider for regular checkups and consultations. There are various types of follow-ups for cancer patients, such as follow-up for surveillance and screening, assessment and management of ...