Monday, October 2, 2023

Histological types of cancer

What is Carcinoma?

Carcinoma refers to a malignant epithelial neoplasm or cancer of the body’s inner or outer lining. Carcinomas, epithelial tissue malignancies, account for 80 to 90 percent of all cancer cases.

Epithelial tissue can be found all over the body. It is found in the skin, organs, and internal passageways, such as the gastrointestinal tract, covering and padding.

Carcinomas are classified into two primary subtypes: adenocarcinoma that occurs in an organ or gland, and squamous cell carcinoma that originates from the squamous epithelium.

Adenocarcinomas usually occur in mucus membranes and are often seen as a thickened white plaque-like mucosa. Sometimes they quickly spread across the soft tissue where they occur. In many parts of the body, squamous cell carcinomas occur.

Most carcinomas involve organs or glands that can secrete, such as breasts that produce milk, or lungs that secrete mucus, or colon or prostate or bladder.

The treatment options for carcinoma depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient’s overall health. Common treatment approaches for carcinoma may include:

Surgery: This involves removing the cancerous tumor and nearby tissues, which may be followed by reconstructive surgery in some cases.

Radiation therapy: This treatment uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or shrink tumors.

Chemotherapy: It involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells or stop their growth. Chemotherapy may be given orally or through intravenous infusion.

Immunotherapy: This treatment stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

Targeted therapy: This type of treatment uses drugs that specifically target certain molecules or genes that are involved in cancer growth.

Hormone therapy: It is used for certain types of carcinoma that are hormone-sensitive, such as breast or prostate cancer. Hormone therapy aims to block or suppress the hormones that promote cancer growth.

Palliative care: In cases where the carcinoma is advanced and cannot be cured, palliative care focuses on providing relief from symptoms and improving the quality of life for the patient.

It’s important to note that the choice of treatment and its effectiveness can vary for each individual, and the treatment plan should be tailored to the specific circumstances of the patient in consultation with healthcare professionals.