What is Carcinoma and Sarcoma
Both Carcinoma and Sarcoma are types of Cancer. In fact, carcinoma is a type of cancer that affects or starts in the epithelial tissue of the skin or the tissue layer lining internal organs like the liver or kidneys. On the Other hand, Sarcoma refers to a type of cancer that can occur at various points in our body. In fact, doctors consider Carcinoma to be one of the most common types of cancer. As a result, carcinomas, just like any other cancerous growth, are abnormal cells that divide rapidly without any control. However, carcinomas may or may not spread to different parts of the body.
We have different conditions concerning carcinoma:
- Carcinoma in Situ: refers to an early stage where cancer will be confined to the tissue layer where it first began and will not be spreading to other body parts or surrounding tissues.
- Invasive carcinoma: here, cancer would have spread a bit beyond the primary spot to surrounding tissue.
- Metastatic carcinoma: cancer spreads to different tissues and body parts.
Types of Carcinomas
Carcinomas can be of different types based on body parts and also the tissues it affects. They are:
Basal cell Carcinoma
- The most common type of carcinoma is skin cancer. In this case, the cancerous growth happens on the basal cell layer (outer layer) of the skin.
- These cancers grow at a slow pace. However, they rarely metastasize to other body parts or lymph nodes.
- They often look like Open sores, pinky growths, red patches, or shiny bumps or scars.
- The primary cause of Basal cell carcinoma is excessive sun exposure.
Squamous cell Carcinoma
- A cancerous growth on the flat squamous cells of the skin. In other words, such cancer growths would be visible on the skin.
- Squamous cell carcinoma can also be found in the skin lining of specific organs, digestive and respiratory tracts.
- This cancer grows and spreads at a faster pace when compared to basal cell carcinoma.
- Here also, excessive sun exposure is the primary cause.
Renal cell Carcinoma
- It is the most common type of kidney cancer. Here cancer typically develops in the tubules or the lining of the small tubes of the kidney.
- It can grow and gradually turn into a huge mass. Renal cell Carcinoma may affect one or both kidneys.
- A CT scan or an Ultrasound can discover it.
- It is the most common type of breast cancer. Cancerous cells can be found in the ducts (lining of milk ducts) of the breast.
- “In situ ductal carcinoma” are not fully developed cancerous growth, hence does not spread to nearby parts.
- Mostly curable
Also Read: Role of Medicinal Mushrooms In Fighting Cancer
Invasive ductal carcinoma
- Different from the ductal scenario, the cancerous cells start and grow in the milk duct lining and spread or invade into the local fatty tissues of the breast.
- Here cancer metastasize. A thorough self-exam or mammogram can best reveal such conditions.
- Symptoms include- rashes or redness of breasts, thickening of the breast skin, swelling of the breast, pain in the nipple, nipple turning inward or any nipple discharge, presence of lumps or mass in the chest or underarm area.
- This type of carcinoma starts in cells called “glandular cells.”
- These cells are found in different organs of our body and are responsible for creating mucus and other fluids.
- Adenocarcinomas can occur in various parts of the body. It can happen in the lungs, pancreas, or colorectal region.
- Possible treatments include Surgery, different therapies like Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Immunotherapy, Hormone therapy, Targeted drug therapy, Bone marrow transplant, Cryoablation, etc.
What is Sarcoma
As explained earlier both Carcinoma and Sarcoma are types of Cancer. Sarcoma refers to a type of cancer that can occur at various points in our body. Generally, the term indicates a broad group of cancers that starts in bones or soft tissues of the body, including blood vessels, cartilage, fat, muscle, fibrous tissue, nerves, tendons, or any connective tissue.
The primary signs and symptoms of sarcoma are:
- The presence of a lump (painful or painless) on the skin.
- Unexpected breakage of bone, even with a minor injury or no injury at all Bone pain
- Pain in bones.
- Pain in the abdomen
- Weight loss
Like any other cancer, sarcomas are also a result of any mutation in the DNA and result in the uncontrolled growth and division of cells, causing cells to accumulate and cause unwanted obstructions.
Types of Sarcomas
Based on the spot of the cancerous growth in the body, there are around 70 types of sarcoma. However, the treatment of each of them depends on the type, location, and various other factors.
Different types of Sarcomas include– Angiosarcoma, Epithelioid sarcoma, Soft tissue sarcoma, Chondrosarcoma, Liposarcoma, Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, Ewing sarcoma, Desmoplastic small round cell tumours, Leiomyosarcoma, Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), Kaposi’s sarcoma, Myxofibrosarcoma, Osteosarcoma, Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Solitary fibrous tumour, Synovial sarcoma, and also Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma to name a few.
Risk Factors of Sarcoma
The factors which can increase the risk and fatality of sarcoma are:
- Exposure to chemicals: excessive exposure or public exposure to certain chemicals like industrial chemicals, herbicides can increase a person’s risk of contracting sarcoma related to the liver.
- Virus Exposure: exposure to viruses can also increase the risk. For instance, a virus called human herpesvirus 8 is capable of increasing the risk of Kaposi Sarcoma. People prone to Virus attacks are exposed to cancerous situations since their immune system is very weak.
- It can be an inherited syndrome passed from one generation to the other.
- Radiation therapy for cancer treatment also increases the risk of contracting sarcoma at a later stage.
- Lymphedema or Chronic swelling increases the risk of angiosarcoma.
Treatment: Surgery, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy are some of the first-hand therapies or cures for sarcoma.
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