About Dr Suraj Chiraniya
Dr Suraj (Hematologist) is a compassionate medical professional registered under MMC with a successful background in diagnosis, treatment and management of hematological illnesses ranging from simple nutritional anemia to most complicated blood cancers requiring stem cell transplantations. He is skilled in delivering medical advice, focusing on patient assessments, correct diagnosis and effective treatment. Trained at CMC Vellore, Dr Chiraniya is passionate about the holistic approach to patient care. He is currently working in HCG Healthcare Global Enterprises, Mumbai.
Leukemia and its Treatment
Leukemia is a type of Blood Cancer. There are three types of blood cells in our body:- RBC, WBC and Platelets. The uncontrolled and abnormal growth of these cells can cause Leukemia.
Children are young with good functional organs. Hence, we can give them high Chemotherapy doses, and their body responds to it quite well, making it easier for us to control Leukemia.
Whereas in adults, there are other co-morbidities conditions like diabetes, hypertension, kidney and heart issues, and these issues may alter the Chemotherapy doses that lead to the deficiency of fighting with the cancer cells. Hence, it is comparatively hard to control Leukemia in adults.
Leukopenia and Thrombocytopenia
When we talk about Leukopenia, it is the condition of a reduced number of white blood cells. As WBC is made of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, we need to see the differential counts of these cells. We need to see where we have an imbalance in the counts, and then we do a bone marrow examination.
Usually, our body’s Platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 400,000 Platelets per microliter (mcL) or 150 to 400 × 109/L. But in Thrombocytopenia, the Platelet count is less than 1.5 lakhs. Most commonly, when we see Thrombocytopenia, we divide it into mild, moderate, and severe. After clinical examination and dividing these, we see the peripheral smear as well to get a clearer picture.
Lymphoma and Myeloma
Lymphoma is a cancer of lymphocytes. It occurs when there is an uncontrolled and abnormal growth of lymphocytes. The common symptoms of Lymphoma are excessive sweating, fever, swelling in the neck, and weight loss.
Myeloma is the cancer of the plasma cell, which is a part of the WBC count. Usually, they are present in the marrow and never appear in the marrow. When plasma cells have abnormal growth, they can cause severe body Pain because they produce proteins difficult to pass through urine. They can cause anemia and hypercalcemia too. We go for a bone marrow test to diagnose myeloma and then a PET scan or/and CT scan to know the stage.
Aplastic Anaemia is a non-cancerous disorder, but it is as dangerous as cancer. Aplastic Anaemia is a condition where there are no cells in the bone marrow, and all the cells are forming in the body. In Aplastic Anaemia, the RBC, WBC, and Platelet counts are very low. There is a provisional diagnosis for it; first, we do CBC, and then we proceed with the bone marrow test. It is a disorder that occurs in all age groups, and we give treatment according to the age and conditions.
In patients less than 40 years of age, we go for stem cell transplants, and for those above 40 years, we go with anti-thymocyte globulin.
Sickle cell and Thalassemia
Sickle cell and Thalassemia are problems related to RBC. Our RBC is of an oval shape, but in sickle cell disease, it becomes like the core of moon shape and becomes rigid and hard to pass through blood vessels. It leads to a decrease in the blood supply.
In Thalassemia, everything is normal except the hemoglobin level. The quality of hemoglobin is not good, which leads to the low production of RBC. The common symptoms of Thalassemia are tiredness and swelling in the abdomen. If both the parents have Thalassemia, then there are higher chances of their child also getting Thalassemia.
Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone marrow transplantation is mostly done in cancerous conditions like Leukemia, Lymphoma or Myeloma and non-cancerous conditions like Aplastic Anaemia, Sickle cell Anemia, Thalassemia and Immunodeficiency disorders. All these can be cured with bone marrow transplantation.
Consultative Hematology happens in the cases where you see low hemoglobin, WBC or Platelet counts. In some cases, these patients can be treated by the general physician with a combination of various medicines. But when these problems don’t have any identifiable cause or the patient doesn’t respond to the medications, then the hematologist comes into the picture.