Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a type of cancer that usually affects surrounding areas such as the salivary glands and head and neck. However, it can also occur in other parts of the body, such as breast tissue, skin, prostate, and cervix.
This type of cancer is relatively rare compared to other types of cancer. The tumour may be solid, hollow, round, or perforated. Women are more susceptible to this cancer than men and are common in groups aged 40 to 60 years.
What are the signs and symptoms?
This cancer affects many parts of the body, so symptoms depend on which part of the body is affected. ACC in the salivary glands can cause facial pain, sagging, or numbness in the lips and surroundings. When ACC affects the lacrimal duct, it can cause vision problems, swelling of the eyes, and pain and swelling in the area near the lacrimal duct. ACC, which affects the skin, can cause pain, bleeding, pus accumulation, hair loss, and increased sensitivity to the affected area. The joints near the areola usually develop when it affects your breasts. In the case of the cervix, there may be vaginal discharge and bleeding as well as pain. Prostate ACC can lead to frequent urination and poor urine flow.
It is seen that certain genes are involved in this type of cancer. Some of the genes NFIB, MYB, MYBL1, and SPEN might play a role in the initiation of the disease. Any abnormalities in these genes can lead to an increased risk of this cancer. If there is any mutation in these genes it can cause a change in the specific biological pathways that can lead to the formation of cancer cells that thrive and grow aggressive even during the treatment. Apart from these, some lifestyle choices can contribute to increased risk. One such factor is smoking and alcohol consumption can pose a significant impact on the response of the patients to the prescribed treatments. BMI or body mass index is a factor that can contribute to this cancer. Research shows that nutrition and diet can adversely affect the treatment or can support the healing or not play any role. So, planning the diet and paying focus on nutrition is vital for faster recovery and can add to the quality of life of the patients.
How can diet affect you?
In ACC, certain biological pathways can affect and play a vital role. Activation or inhibition of the pathways, Oxidative Stress, DNA Repair, Notch Signalling, Cholesterol Metabolism, Post Translational Modification, and PI3K-AKT-MTOR Signalling might be such pathways. Food and nutritional supplements have active components affecting these pathways. So, intake of these foods can possibly affect the ACC. These effects can be positive or negative. It can either bolster the treatment undergoing or offset the treatment and lead to adverse interactions leading to worsening of the condition of the patients.
What food to avoid?
The type of food that should be taken depends on the type of cancer, the treatment that you have chosen, the supplements you are taking, and several other factors like gender, age, BMI, lifestyle, etc. We will discuss a few of such foods that you should avoid. It is found in studies that regular intake of vitamin C and fibre from fruits and vegetables can help to reduce the risk of ACC while an increase in cholesterol can increase the risk.
Cumin or caraway: Cumin contains active substances such as caffeic acid, folic acid, and drimonen. Caffeic acid interferes with the action of cisplatin in adenoid cyst cancer by blocking certain biological processes called post-translational modifications. In addition, caffeic acid has cisplatin treatment and CYP3A4 interactions. Therefore, do not eat cumin with cisplatin for the treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Cherry: Cherry contains active compounds such as chlorogenic acid, oleic acid, and isorhamnetin. Chlorogenic acid interferes with the action of cisplatin in adenoid cyst cancer by blocking a specific biological process called oxidative stress. Therefore, do not eat cherries with cisplatin to treat adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Ajwain: Ajwain contains active ingredients such as beta-sitosterol, methoxsalen, and oleic acid. Taking beta-sitosterol together with cisplatin for adenoid cystic carcinoma reduces a specific
biochemical pathway called PI3K-AKT-MTOR Signalling, and this is a very positive effect. Ajwain should therefore be consumed together with this cancer treatment cisplatin.
What food should you eat?
We discussed the food you need to avoid. Let’s talk about the food you should eat while having cisplatin treatment.
Aloe Vera: Aloe Vera contains active ingredients such as Lupeol, Acemannan, and Chrysophanol. Taking lupeol with cisplatin to treat adenoid cystic carcinoma reduces a specific biochemical pathway called PI3K-AKT-MTOR Signalling, and this is a very positive effect. Aloe vera should be consumed along with cisplatin to treat this cancer.
Black Seed: Black Seed nutritional supplements containing active ingredients such as thymoquinone have a CYP3A4 interaction with cisplatin treatment and therefore should not be used. Furthermore, black seed supplements did not show benefits on other biochemical pathways that might improve the efficacy of cisplatin treatment in adenoid cystic carcinoma.
The two most important things to remember are that cancer treatment and diet are not the same for everyone. Diet, including foods and supplements, is a powerful tool under your control when faced with cancer such as adenoid cystic carcinoma.
The food you eat and the supplements you take are the choices you make. Your decision should take into account oncogene mutations, cancer, ongoing treatments and supplements, allergies, lifestyle information, weight, height, and habits. The supplement cancer diet plan should be not based on internet research but you need to consult with your doctors first. Whether or not you want to understand the underlying biochemical molecular pathways, this understanding is necessary for cancer nutritional planning.