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Symptoms of Astrocytoma

Symptoms of Astrocytoma

Symptoms of astrocytomas, The brain is made up of a variety of cells, such as neurons, which form the electrical circuitry that controls brain activities, and astrocytes, which give the structure and support that allows neurons to function effectively. Astrocytomas are tumours that arise from astrocytes and are the most frequent type of brain tumour in adults. Every year, around 15,000 new astrocytomas are diagnosed in the United States. With a ratio of 1.3/1, males are slightly more impacted than females.

Symptoms of Astrocytoma

Astrocytoma's clinical presentation is determined by its placement inside the brain rather than its physiological properties. Some areas of the brain can accommodate enormous tumours before they become symptomatic (for example, the forehead), whereas others can create issues early on, such as limb weakness or difficulty in vision and also speech.

When compared to more aggressive, higher-grade astrocytomas, low-grade astrocytomas tend to be larger before they become symptomatic. This is because lower-grade tumours tend to displace rather than damage the brain, as well as the fact that they are linked with less brain oedema than malignant tumours.

The size and location of the astrocytoma influence the symptoms.

Also Read: Types of Treatment for Astrocytoma

The following are some of the most common symptoms of astrocytoma:

  • Headaches that don't go away
  • Headaches that are more severe in the morning or wake you up ( a sign of increased intracranial pressure)
  • The vision that is doubled or blurred
  • Speech issues
  • Cognitive abilities deteriorate
  • Weakness in the grip or limbs
  • New seizures have occurred
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Loss of memory
  • Alterations in mental health
  • Fatigue
  • Other forms of cognitive and motor dysfunction
  • Intracranial pressure that is too high might cause aberrant reflexes or weakness on one side of the body.

Because the brain can momentarily adjust to the presence of a slow-growing tumour, symptoms of grade I and grade II astrocytomas are mild. Grade III and IV astrocytomas can cause rapid and devastating symptoms. Increased pressure in the brain can cause headaches, visual problems, nausea, and vomiting, among other symptoms. Due to interference with normal brain activity, symptoms such as focal seizures, trouble speaking, loss of balance and weakness, paralysis, or loss of sensation on one side of the body may arise depending on the location of the tumour. Astrocytoma patients frequently experience fatigue and depression.

Desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma (DIA) is a type of grade I astrocytoma that is extremely rare. This tumour mainly affects the cerebral hemispheres and is diagnosed in children under the age of two. Increased head size, bulging soft patches (fontanelles) in the skull, eyes that gaze downward, and seizures are all possible symptoms. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma is a related tumour that is a mixed astrocytic and neuronal tumour that is generally comparable to DIA.

Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is a type of astrocytoma that develops in the brain's ventricles and is virtually always linked to the genetic disorder tuberous sclerosis. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) and ganglioglioma (a mixed glial-neuronal tumour) are two other rare neuroepithelial tumours.

The following symptoms or indicators are common in children with astrocytoma. Children with astrocytoma may or may not experience any of these changes. Alternatively, a symptom could be caused by something other than a tumour.

  • Headaches
  • Tired and dissatisfied with your life
  • Seizures that aren't caused by a high fever
  • Problems with vision, such as double vision
  • Growth or development that has shifted

statistics of astrocytoma

The only indication in a baby could be that the head is growing too quickly. An infant's skull can expand to accommodate a growing brain tumour. As a result, a baby with astrocytoma may have a larger head than usual.

This is the some of the most common symptoms of astrocytoma.

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Reference:

  1. Willman M, Willman J, Figg J, Dioso E, Sriram S, Olowofela B, Chacko K, Hernandez J, Lucke-Wold B. Update for astrocytomas: medical and surgical management considerations. Explor Neurosci. 2023;2:1-26. doi: 10.37349/en.2023.00009. Epub 2023 Feb 23. PMID: 36935776; PMCID: PMC10019464.
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