Nowadays, cancer is a common disease. While some people are affected by cancer due to factors like obesity, smoking, tobacco consumption, and deficiency of sun rays, some people tend to inherit cancer genes from their parents. Usually, the mutated gene passed through inheritance causes cancer in an individual. About five to ten out of a hundred cases of cancer result from mutated or altered gene inherited from parents.
All types of cancer are due to the mutation of genes. Mutations are changes in DNA or genes that alter the mechanism of how cells divide in human body.
When many people from a family get cancer, it is usually because of a particular mutagen that causes changes in their DNA. It is known as inherit cancer. In family cancer syndrome, mutated/abnormal/altered genes pass from parents to their young ones. Such cancers might not be linked to a particular mutation, but they might be linked to similarities among family members. Such connected family members have higher chances of acquiring cancer. The following cancers come under family cancer syndrome:
- Rare type of cancers
- Two or more varieties of cancers in one person (ovarian and breast cancer)
- Cancers that might occur before the age of 20
- Cancers starting in a pair of organs (kidney, eyes)
- Cancer occurring in many generations
The chances of acquiring these cancers are lower if the affected person is a distant family relative; and they are higher if the affected person is a close family member. Inherited cancer is also determined if relatives of only one parent are affected. Cancers like ovarian, breast, endometrial, and colorectal may have more chances of being passed on to the next generation.
Inheritance of cancer genes is of two types: dominant and recessive. In dominant inheritance, even one copy of the gene can cause the disease, while both copies of genes are needed to cause the disease in recessive inheritance.
How does inherit cancer take place?
A lot of genes bound together to form DNA, which is present in the form of chromosomes in the cells of our body. We have 46 chromosomes, half from the father and the other half from mother. Twenty-three chromosomes of the father are passed to the sperm, while in the case of the mother, it is given to egg. Both the egg and sperm fuse to form the offspring. That means every individual has two copies of one gene. Any change in a gene may or may not pass from parent to child.
How to check inherit cancer?
Firstly, get to know your family history. Check if anyone has had cancer in your family. Talk to a doctor about your concerns and know about how you can take care of health. Having an active lifestyle, a healthy diet, going for regular checkups, reducing Stress and preventive care can help. If necessitated, you may ask the doctor for specific tests like genetic testing, colonoscopy, or mammogram.