CBD or Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol, or CBD, is the second most common active ingredient in one of the hemp plants. We can extract CBD from the Cannabis sativa L. hemp plant. Cannabinoids are a group of more than 80 chemicals found in the Sativa plant. Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species native to Central Asia. It is a traditional medicine and as a source of textile fabric. We can extract the two active components CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (Delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol) from the hemp plant for therapeutic purposes. THC, or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is the most well-known component of cannabis.
CBD (cannabidiol) is a non-intoxicating chemical component derived from hemp. It is a Cannabis sativa plant strain with only trace amounts of THC. Clinical trials show that CBD may help with conditions such as chemotherapy-induced nausea and anorexia, as well as the symptomatic relief of multiple sclerosis. It appears to have effects on some brain chemicals, but not in the same way that THC does.
CBD or Cannabidiol Oil
CBD oil is a concentrated extract made from cannabis leaves or flowers which is dissolved in oils such as olive, hemp, or sunflower oil. There are various types of CBD oil, each with a different concentration of cannabinoids.
- CBD isolates are CBD-only products. Full-spectrum CBD products contain compounds derived from all parts of the Cannabis sativa plant. They contain less than 0.3 per cent THC.
- Broad-spectrum CBD products contain the majority of the same compounds as full-spectrum CBD products, but contain only trace amounts of THC.
- Because of the entourage effect — the combination of cannabinoids has a more pronounced impact than individual ones. Full- and broad-spectrum products may produce greater clinical effects than CBD isolates.
Cannabinoids interact with the body’s internal cannabinoid system, known as the endocannabinoid system by experts. This system modulates the following:
- nerve activity
- pain, emotions, inflammation, immune response
Currently, as per the doctor’s recommendation, some cancer patients may use cannabinoids for supportive care to treat pain and chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting.
CBD Oil for Lung cancer
In both men and women, lung cancer is the second most common cancer. Moreover, despite advances in lung cancer treatment, survival rates remain low, hovering around 15% five years after diagnosis. Some patients choose symptom control, but even in this case, the survival rate is lower.
Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted cancer drugs are all common treatments for lung cancer. However, patients frequently poorly tolerate these treatments.
The quest to improve lung cancer prognosis has resulted in the development of new drugs with mechanisms of action that differ from conventional chemotherapy drugs. Researchers are putting a lot of effort into developing and evaluating the potential of targeted therapies and immunotherapy in lung cancer, which is leading to better clinical outcomes. As a result, for patients with targetable oncogenic drivers, targeted therapy is gradually replacing conventional chemotherapy as the standard treatment. However, we must acknowledged that these agents’ responses are still partial, with tumours recurring during follow-up. In fact, due to the genetic heterogeneity of tumours, achieving a complete response in lung cancer patients is extremely difficult.
Need to dig deeper
The challenge of improving the outcome of lung cancer patients has led to the evaluation of alternative drugs that, alone or in combination, may lead to improved response and survival in lung cancer patients. As a result, further research into new drugs or even established therapies previously used to treat non-malignant diseases that may have an effect on lung cancer in vitro and/or in vivo is worthwhile. CBD may have anti-neoplastic effects in lung cancer and other types of cancer in vitro and/or in vivo. Despite the fact that we need more research to better understand the mechanisms of action of CBD in vitro and in vivo, it is worthwhile to identify any potential cases of patients with lung cancer whose disease responds to this drug.
An Interesting case study on how CBD oil shrank lung cancer cells
An 81-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presented to his primary care physician in October 2016 with a 3-week history of increasing breathlessness but no cough. A chest radiograph revealed a shadow in the lower zone of the left lung, and a CT scan confirmed the presence of a 2.5 2.5 cm mass and multiple mediastinal lymph nodes. An endobronchial ultrasound-guided biopsy of the paratracheal lymph nodes revealed lung adenocarcinoma with tumour positivity.
His previous medical history included COPD, diet-controlled diabetes, and prostate cancer, which was treated with radical prostatectomy in 2004 and is now in remission. He was not taking any medications on a regular basis and had no history of drug allergies. There had been no prior history of asbestos exposure. He was a former smoker (around 18 cigarettes per day for about 15 years), having quit 45 years ago. His ECOG performance level was a 1. The physical exam was unremarkable. The patient was offered chemotherapy and radiotherapy. But he refused as he was in his 80s. So, he did not want any treatment that would impair his quality of life. The decision was made to monitor the patient but not to administer active treatment.
A CT scan in December 2016 revealed that the lung mass had grown to 2.7*2.8 cm in size, despite the fact that the mediastinal and left hilar lymph nodes had not changed in size. The patient was again offered treatment but declined. In July 2017, a chest X-ray revealed progressive changes in the left lower zone but no significant collapse or effusion. In November 2017, the patient underwent another CT scan. The scan revealed near-total resolution of the left lower lobe mass, with only a small area of residual speculated soft tissue remaining (1.3*0.6 cm) and a significant reduction in the size and number of mediastinal lymph nodes. In January 2018, the patient had another CT scan. This scan revealed stable appearances of the small residual opacity in the left lower lobe and mediastinal lymph nodes.
When questioned further, the patient stated that he had begun taking CBD oil 2% in early September 2017. He started with two drops twice a day for a week. Then he increased to nine drops twice a day until the end of September. Following the November 2017 CT scan, the patient began taking nine drops twice daily. But he was forced to discontinue them about a week later. This was due to the patient’s dislike of the taste, which caused him to feel slightly nauseated. He never got sick physically. There were no other dietary, medication, or lifestyle changes since September 2017.
Based on this case study, it is clear that several factors contributed to this patient’s positive response to CBD. Despite the fact that non-malignant cells have significantly lower potency, the effects of CBD on non-malignant cells have yet to be fully assessed.