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Probiotics Decrease The Side Effects Of Immunotherapy

Probiotics Decrease The Side Effects Of Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that has several advantages, such as helping the immune system fight the disease. Given its importance in cancer treatment, improving its efficiency is vital. The immune system usually does not detect cancerous cells, but Immunotherapy uses drugs and other substances to create a stronger response.

Probiotics Decrease The Side Effects Of Immunotherapy

Also Read: What is Immunotherapy in Cancer?

Recently, scientists have discovered that the gut microbiome, which includes trillions of intestinal microorganisms, is capable of controlling the immune system. There appeared to be a manipulating impact on the gut microbiome due to dietary choices. People who ate a high-fibre diet were five times more inclined to respond to Immunotherapy and had more bacteria associated with a positive response.

On the other hand, people with diets high in refined sugar and processed meat had less of those good bacteria. Overall, the research may partly explain why certain cancers are not responding well to Immunotherapy care. It also indicates that certain dietary factors, and cautious evaluation of probiotic supplements, can affect the success rates.

Further studies are underway. One is using an oral pill to seek whether it has a positive influence on the reaction of the gut microbiome and Immunotherapy.

Cancer treatment also causes severe side effects, including damage to the gastrointestinal system. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of prescribing probiotics to cancer patients seeking cancer treatment, with proven effectiveness in minimizing side effects associated with the gut. The immune system of the host plays an important role in the fight against tumour cells. Due to their genetic instability, malignant cells on their side are constantly developing new strategies to avoid immunosurveillance. Targeted Immunotherapy is novel cancer care that can improve a host's immune response to the tumour while helping to 'bury' cancer resistance and mechanisms of cancer recurrence.

Probiotics are live microorganisms that are believed to offer health benefits when ingested in adequate quantities. The hypothesis behind their use is that gut dysbiosis, an imbalance in the gastrointestinal (GI) system's normal flora, may lead to illness, impaired metabolism, or immune system dysregulation. The gut microbiota is composed of all commensal microorganisms, including bacteria (predominantly), fungi, archaea, and viruses, and evidence shows that it is involved in a complex relationship with the GI tract and immune system.

Supportive care

While there is much speculation about the possibility that probiotics may prevent cancer, the most well-studied use of probiotics is as a supportive care for patients receiving cancer Treatment. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that probiotics can minimize some Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy(RT) related toxicity, although the sample sizes of these trials were small.

In its study, the same Cochrane review covered 3 RCTs and found that probiotics significantly reduced the incidence of any Diarrhea compared to placebo (pooled risk ratio; 0.59; 95 per cent CI, 0.36-0.96).

Probiotics Protection

Probiotics are commonly advertised as a safe means of improving digestion among healthy people and modifying disease processes. While probiotics tend to be associated with few adverse events (AEs), it is important to note that manufacturers do not have formal reporting of AEs, and studies may or may not report AEs. The actual occurrence of AE's is, therefore, uncertain. Furthermore, there is no regulation as to what suppliers claim is in their product, in terms of living organisms and the type of organisms, since probiotics generally fall within the realm of supplements, which have limited regulatory oversight by the FDA.

Probiotics Decrease The Side Effects Of Immunotherapy

Also Read: Pros and Cons of Immunotherapy

Several small RCTs indicate that probiotics help decrease the risk or severity of toxicities caused by cancer treatment, especially diarrhoea, postoperative infections, and mucositis. Probiotics tend to be associated with few AEs, although it is important to remember that certain countries like the United States of America do not regulate probiotic labeling. Bloodstream infections are possible but uncommon, particularly among hospitalized patients.

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Reference:

  1. Rodriguez-Arrastia M, Martinez-Ortigosa A, Rueda-Ruzafa L, Folch Ayora A, Ropero-Padilla C. Probiotic Supplements on Oncology Patients' Treatment-Related Side Effects: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Apr 17;18(8):4265. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18084265. PMID: 33920572; PMCID: PMC8074215.

  2. Mazziotta C, Tognon M, Martini F, Torreggiani E, Rotondo JC. Probiotics Mechanism of Action on Immune Cells and Beneficial Effects on Human Health. Cells. 2023 Jan 2;12(1):184. doi: 10.3390/cells12010184. PMID: 36611977; PMCID: PMC9818925.

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