C-reactive protein (CPR)

The liver produces C-reactive protein (CRP) in reaction to inflammation. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (or hs-CRP) and ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein (or US-CRP) are two more names for CRP (us-CRP). Inflammation is marked by a high level of CRP in the blood. It can be brought on by a variety of factors, including infection and Malignancy.

Elevated CRP level.:

It showed high CRP levels to be more predictive of coronary artery disease and stroke in women than high cholesterol levels in the Harvard Women’s Health Study.

A more prevalent cause of heart disease is high cholesterol. According to the Jackson Heart Study, the Hs-CRP may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes among African-Americans. This test may be ordered with other tests to determine a person’s risk of heart disease or stroke. CRP may potentially be utilized as a predictor of health outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, according to a recent study (COPD). Doctors may order a CRP test to identify inflammatory autoimmune illnesses such as

  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Lupus

What is the test:

The liver responds to acute inflammation or infection and chronic inflammation by producing CRP into the circulation. CRP interacts with your body’s complement system, a defensive mechanism in your immune system that aids in eliminating pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

Before the test:

The test might take less than five minutes, and you can leave immediately after the test until feeling faint or sick. The test can be conducted in the laboratory or as preferred by the doctor’s indications. It is preferred to wear short sleeves shirts while having difficulty.

Food and drink:  Fasting isn’t required for a CRP or hs-CRP test, so you might be able to get one straight after your appointment with your doctor. It’s also not necessary to fast for an ESR test. However, many cholesterol tests do, so if your doctor is having your levels checked as well, fasting can be preferred before few hours of the testing. If you have additional tests scheduled simultaneously, your doctor will give you precise advice on how to proceed

Test administration:

This test does not require any special preparation. On the day of the test, you may eat normally.

Blood is drawn from a vein, generally on the inside of your elbow or the back of your hand, by the health professional:

They begin by cleaning the skin around the vein with antiseptic. Then next, put an elastic band across your arm, gently bulging your veins. The practitioner inserts a tiny needle, which then takes your blood in a sterile vial.

Following the collection of your blood sample, the nurse or health practitioner will remove the elastic band from your arm and ask you to apply gauze pressure to the puncture site. To keep the gauze in place, they might use tape or a bandage.

After the test:

You can continue your usual activities immediately after your blood is drawn.

Swelling, bruising, discomfort, or a hematoma (blood pooling in the skin) may occur in the place where your blood was collected, but these adverse effects should be minimal and should go away within a few days. Make an appointment with your doctor if they don’t go away or worsen.

Result:

Your CRP test results may take a day or two to arrive, depending on where your blood is sent.

CRP Test: In general, normal blood contains very little CRP; however, levels tend to rise with age and are somewhat greater in females and African Americans.

An average CRP level is less than ten mg/L in the routine test.

If your findings are more significant than ten mg/L, you are most likely suffering from a severe infection or inflammatory illness.

Milligrams of CRP per litre of blood (mg/L) are used to quantify C-reactive protein. A low C-reactive protein level is preferable to a high one since it suggests that it is less prone to inflammation.

According to the Cleveland Clinic, a value of less than one mg/L means you have a minimal risk of cardiovascular disease.

You’re at intermediate risk if your level is between 1 and 2.9 mg/L.

You have a high risk of cardiovascular disease if your reading is more than three mg/L

Possible causes of the Wrong result:

Chronic inflammatory diseases:

If your CRP level is high, you might be experiencing a flare-up, or it could signal that your therapy isn’t working as effectively as it should be and has to be adjusted. If your CRP level is low after previously being high, it means your therapy is working, and the inflammation is decreasing.

Furthermore, if your doctor believes you have a chronic inflammatory illness like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus, but you haven’t been diagnosed with it, your CRP test results can help rule it out if they’re negative or confirm that additional testing is needed if they’re high.

Infection:

When your doctor detects infection and your CRP test results are positive, it’s time to dig deeper to determine what’s causing the infection and where it’s located (assuming it’s not visible). If your CRP level has decreased following infection therapy, this indicates that you are responding to the treatment.

Heart stroke:

CRP levels were three times higher in individuals who had a heart attack than those who didn’t. This condition was even for males who had never had a cardiac problem before.

Heart disease and CRP:

Individuals with CRP levels more than or equal to 2 milligrams per litre (mg/L) are likely to require more intensive care and therapy for heart disease, according to research published in 2013. (David C. Goff et al., 2014)

CRP levels may be beneficial in identifying those who are at risk for heart disease when cholesterol levels alone aren’t enough.

These diseases are considered important risk factors for heart disease by the Centers for Disease Control and PreventionTrusted Source:

  • hypertension and diabetes
  • cholesterol levels are high
  • Tobacco use, a poor diet, and a lack of physical exercise are all factors that impede physical being overweight and using too much alcohol
  • Heart disease is also more likely if you have a family history of it.

Lowering of CRP:

Lowering your CRP doesn’t mean you’ll be less likely to develop cardiovascular or autoimmune illness.

It’s crucial to understand that elevated CRP is referred to be a biomarker by doctors. A biomarker is a factor to consider when assessing a person’s health, but it is not a diagnostic in and of itself.

CRP reduction isn’t a surefire strategy to reduce your risk of cardiovascular or autoimmune illness.

It’s crucial to understand that elevated CRP is referred to be a biomarker by doctors. A biomarker is a factor to consider when assessing a person’s health, but it is not a diagnostic sign in and of itself. (Smidowicz & Regula, 2015)

Vitamin C has also been studied to lower CRP levels in patients who have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Probiotics may also help to decrease CRP, according to recent studies Trusted Source. (Mazidi et al., 2017) (Block et al., 2009)

Other tests could be performed with this test:

Because the CRP test informs you if you have inflammation and not what’s causing it, your doctor will most likely request additional testing. These may include the following:

Test for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). This test, like the CRP, assesses inflammation. It isn’t quite as sensitive as CRP. However, it is simple to accomplish and provides additional information. A large number of healthcare practitioners will order it at the same time.

Test for antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The ANA test measures the autoantibodies that assault your cells. It is crucial in the diagnosis of some autoimmune disorders.

Rheumatoid factor is a protein that causes rheumatoid arthritis (RF). This test is used to diagnose and track the progression of rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis is diagnosed and monitored with this test.

Risk associated:

With blood testing, there are relatively few dangers. After your blood is extracted, you may see bruising, swelling, or a hematoma (a solid bulge of pooled blood beneath your skin), or you may feel dizzy, lightheaded, or faint. The needle puncture, like any other entry wound, carries the danger of infection.