Thursday, September 22, 2022

Brain Cancer

Treatment for various stages of Brain cancer

Brain tumors are generally graded by how normal or abnormal the cells look. With the help of Brain Cancer staging and grading, doctors get an idea of how fast the tumor may grow and spread. This helps the doctors to curate treatment plans for individual patients after a proper Brain Cancer diagnosis. Radiation therapy and Surgery are two types of treatment of Brain Cancer (in Craniopharyngioma). In radiation therapy, radiation is delivered either through a machine outside your body or is injected into the tumor inside the brain to kill the cancer cells. Transsphenoidal Surgery and Craniotomy are the two ways of doing Surgery. Sometimes these surgeries can cause side effects like bleeding or damage to parts of the brain that can affect certain body functions, but with proper checkup and recovery plan, curing Craniopharyngioma completely is possible.

Grade 1 Brain Cancer stage

Grade 1 or low-grade Brain Cancer are curable via Surgery alone. These low-grade cancers like Pilocytic astrocytoma, Ganglioglioma, and Craniopharyngioma are least malignant (generally benign brain tumor). In these cases, the cancer cells look normal and grow slowly; however, the long-term survival of patients is likely. They are also non-infiltrative and do not recur in most of the cases. Headaches, regularly feeling sick or vomiting, weight loss, irritability, torticollis (tilt neck or wry neck), is the most common symptom in children who suffer from Pilocytic astrocytoma. Usually diagnosed after a neurological exam and an ophthalmological exam a CT scan and/or an MRI scan, doctors suggest Biopsy if a Brain Cancer lump or Brain Tumor is found. The tumor is surgically removed in many cases, although Chemotherapy or Radiation therapy is advised if Surgery is not possible. Fits (seizures) and headaches that worsen in the morning is the first symptom of Ganglioglioma. They are rare, and when the Brain Tumor is removed with surgery, the tumor does not grow back and can be referred to as benign or non-cancerous. Recovery is generally fast, and low-grade gangliogliomas can be fully cured with neuro-surgery. Regularly feeling sick or vomiting, excessive thirst, mood changes, trouble walking, late puberty are common symptoms of Craniopharyngioma. Doctors diagnose this type of Brain Cancer by complete evaluation of your nervous system health called a neurologic exam. Testing patients’ coordination, reflexes, senses, and thinking ability are important during this procedure. Other than this, an MRI, blood tests, and Biopsy are needed to confirm the diagnosis. When it comes to expected outcomes and side effects, treatment, and the success rate of this type of Brain Cancer is high. All the symptoms like effects on coordination and balance, headaches due to tissue swelling, or increased pressure on the brain goes away after Surgery.

Grade 2 Brain Cancer stage

In second-grade brain cancers like Pineocytoma, Diffuse Astrocytoma, and Pure oligodendroglia, cells look slightly abnormal and tend to grow slowly. Although, tumors like these are somewhat infiltrative and may spread to nearby tissue and can recur later. Physical Pain and weakness on one side of the body are commonly seen as the first symptom of Diffuse Astrocytoma. Typically occurring in adults between the ages of 20 and 50, Diffuse Astrocytoma has a slow growth rate, and patients with it survive longer than other types of brain tumors. With the help of continuous EEG recording of the brain’s electrical activity, MRI scans, and CT scans, this type of Brain Tumor and Brain Cancer stages are diagnosed. Surgery, radiotherapy, radiosurgery, and Chemotherapy are the best Brain Cancer treatment options available with a high success rate. Some patients suffer from side effects such as local inflammation inside the brain, leading to headaches, which can be treated with oral Brain Cancer medication. Radiation therapy is suggested after Surgery in some cases, to improve the outcome. Pineocytoma is diagnosed with the help of a brain Biopsy. Vision abnormalities, coordination problems, etc. are some symptoms of this kind of Brain Tumor. With Surgery to remove the pineocytoma, sometimes Radiotherapy is needed for the complete recovery of this brain tumor/ nodule. Fortunately, this type of tumor does not reoccur, and patients get cured easily. Occurring on the frontal lobe, pure oligodendroglia originate from a glial precursor cell. The symptoms include visual loss, motor weakness, and cognitive decline, which mostly depend on the location of the tumor. When it comes to surgery, these tumors cannot be fully resected. Chemotherapy and radiation are among the popular Brain Cancer treatments suggested by doctors after Surgery for better results. Long time survival is reported among pure oligodendroglia patients as they are slow-growing.

Grade 3 Brain cancer

Grade 3 brain cancers like Anaplastic astrocytoma, Anaplastic ependymoma, and Anaplastic oligodendroglioma are highly malignant and infiltrative. The cancerous cells look abnormal and grow actively into nearby brain tissue. These tumors also tend to recur and can develop into a grade 4 Brain Cancer easily. Depressed mental status, seizures, and focal neurological deficits are initial symptoms of Anaplastic astrocytoma. With the help of radiation therapy, patients can get a higher life expectancy, but different types of paralysis, speech impediments, vision problems, etc. often occur even after the available treatments. Developing from a tissue of the central nervous system, ependyma, ependymoma tumors can cause severe headache, drowsiness, visual loss, and problems like impaction/constipation. Loss of appetite, temporary inability to distinguish colors, difficulty sleeping, uncontrollable twitching, temporary memory loss, and seeing vertical or horizontal lines when in bright light are among other symptoms that must not be ignored. With surgical resection followed by radiation therapy, this kind of Brain Tumor can be treated. From seizure, visual loss, motor weakness, and cognitive decline, Anaplastic oligodendroglioma has symptoms like other brain cancers. An MRI, CT scan, and Biopsy are crucial for the final diagnosis of these stages of Brain Cancer. As a high-grade brain tumor, oligodendrogliomas cannot be entirely removed and are not completely curable by surgical excision. Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy are often suggested even after the Surgery is done to improve the survival rate.

Grade 4 Brain Cancer signs

Grade 4 brain cancers are malignant brain tumors, widely infiltrative, and Necrosis prone. Typically, in 4th-grade brain cancers like Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), Pineoblastoma, Medulloblastoma, and Ependymoblastoma, the cancerous cells are aggressive, spread quickly, and look abnormal. The symptoms of GBM depend on the size and the location of the Glioblastoma multiforme. Over time as the Brain Tumor grows, patients can see increasing signs of mental dysfunction, persistent headaches, other symptoms such as swollen lymph nodes, vomiting, etc. With neurologic evaluation and examinations, including a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, a chest X-ray, or a computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan, doctors find how much the tumor has spread. The Brain Cancer survival rate is high with Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy. Research is going on new forms of Chemotherapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery for better treatment of GBM in the future. Positional dizziness and nystagmus, migraines, and facial sensory loss or motor weakness are the initial symptoms of Medulloblastoma. This form of Brain Tumor is a rapidly growing tumor that spreads fast to different locations along the surface of the brain and spinal cord. Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy are used as part of the treatment, while surgical removal of the maximum part of the tumor is necessary for disease-free survival. Other than clinical treatments, a physical therapy like exercise and meditation for regaining lost motor skills, occupational therapy, speech therapy, lifestyle changes can help Brain Cancer patients to get back to their normal daily activities. With relaxation exercises, music therapy, and other interactive treatments, patients can get back to normal shape, and can definitely make their self-healing process faster.