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Health Benefits of Curcumin Based Food Supplements In The Diet

Health Benefits of Curcumin Based Food Supplements In The Diet

Curcumin is derived from the plant source Curcuma longa, which is traditionally used in Asian countries in the form of a medicinal herb as it consists of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties (Lestari & Indrayanto, 2014; Vera‐Ramirez et al., 2013). It is a polyphenol tending to target multiple signalling molecules while demonstrating cellular activity which has helped to support its numerous health benefits. Curcumin has shown effectiveness during inflammatory conditions, metabolic syndrome, pain, and support in managing inflammatory and degenerative eye conditions (Gupta et al., 2013). It has also shown beneficial effects on kidney-related issues (Trujillo et al., 2013). Hence, curcumin has demonstrated numerous therapeutic benefits as its supplementation in treating several diseases. The essential usefulness of curcumin involves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. More advantages of curcumin have been observed when combined with other compounds such as piperine, which shows efficacy in increasing its bioavailability.

Curcumin intake as a supplement has shown beneficial effects in managing exercise-induced inflammation and muscle soreness, thus enhancing recovery and subsequent performance of inactive people. Even its low dose consumption has provided positive health benefits for individuals who do not have diagnosed health conditions.

Curcumin effects as food supplements in the diet

The use of curcumin as a potential therapeutic agent and nutraceutical has increased in recent years. Different numbers of curcumin formulations are present to date. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has approved the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of curcumin as 3 mg/kg body weight (BW) and day. The production of functional foods in the form of curcuminoids has faced challenges that need to be mitigated for providing adequate curcumin products to consumers. Bioaccessibility and processing conditions are essential factors for using curcumin-based food products in the diet. CurcuWin® is the commercial curcumin production with bioaccessibility of three emulsification methods: commercial turmeric extracts (Zheng et al., 2018). CurcuWin® (OmniActive), LongVida® (Ingennus), NovaSol® (CleanFoods), and Theracurmin® (Natural Factors) are other commercial products available in the market with improved bioaccessibility (Jamwal, 2018). This improved product shows better solubility of curcuminoids in water absorbed in the intestinal tract, eventually showing beneficial health effects. Hence, the production of emulsified systems enables the dispersion of curcuminoids in an aqueous medium, bringing essential benefits to exploring the biological activity of curcuminoids. 

Another efficacy of curcumin is depicted when combined with phytosterols in bread in the plasma lipid profile and subjected to examine the clinical effectiveness for hypercholesterolemia. Also, the other curcumin-based food supplements incorporate turmeric extract in beverages, bread, biscuits, snacks, pasta, milk, cheese, fresh sausage, and patties (Adegoke et al., 2017; Al-Obaidi, 2019; de Carvalho et al., 2020). Hence, it is revealed that the natural and functional ingredients can balance the physic-chemical properties of the compositions and further improve the antioxidant capacity, delaying microbial growth that in turn influences the colour and sensory properties. 

Health Benefits of Curcumin

Figure: Curcumin-based food supplements

Curcumin-based food supplements in cancer

Curcumin has demonstrated several mechanisms against different cancer types as per the clinical trials conducted for analysing its efficacy. The anticancer activities of curcumin have been determined to show symptomatic relief as evidenced by reductions in smell, itching, lesion size, and pain. Either alone or combined with other agencies, curcumin has demonstrated effective results against colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, multiple myeloma, lung cancer, oral cancer, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. 

A clinical trial with a recommended dose of 3.6 g of curcumin has been suggested for phase II evaluation in preventing or treating cancers outside the gastrointestinal tract (Sharma et al., 2004). Curcumin capsules have been recommended for malignant colorectal cancer showing efficacy in pharmacological aspects (Garcea et al., 2005). The intake of oral curcumin is well-tolerated and, despite limited absorption, has biological activity in some patients with pancreatic cancer (Dhillon et al., 2008). The maximal tolerable dose of the combination of dose-escalating curcumin and the standard amount of docetaxel chemotherapy is considered effective in advanced and metastatic breast cancer (Bayet-Robert et al., 2010). In combination with Bioperine, Curcumin shows efficacy against multiple myeloma (Vadhan-Raj et al., 2007). The consumption of dietary turmeric shows efficacy as an anti-mutagen among smokers while reducing the risk of lung cancer (Polasa et al., 1992).

References

  1. Lestari, M. L., & Indrayanto, G. (2014). Curcumin. Profiles of drug substances, excipients and related methodology, 39, 113-204.
  2. Vera‐Ramirez, L., Pérez‐Lopez, P., Varela‐Lopez, A., Ramirez‐Tortosa, M., Battino, M., & Quiles, J. L. (2013). Curcumin and liver disease. Biofactors, 39(1), 88-100. 10.2174/1381612811319340013
  3. Gupta, S. C., Patchva, S., & Aggarwal, B. B. (2013). Therapeutic roles of curcumin: lessons learned from clinical trials. The AAPS journal, 15(1), 195-218. 10.1208/s12248-012-9432-8
  4. Trujillo, J., Chirino, Y. I., Molina-Jijón, E., Andérica-Romero, A. C., Tapia, E., & Pedraza-Chaverrí, J. (2013). Renoprotective effect of the antioxidant curcumin: Recent findings. Redox biology, 1(1), 448-456.  10.1016/j.redox.2013.09.003
  5. Zheng, B., Peng, S., Zhang, X., & McClements, D. J. (2018). Impact of delivery system type on curcumin bioaccessibility: Comparison of curcumin-loaded nanoemulsions with commercial curcumin supplements. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 66(41), 10816-10826. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03174
  6. Jamwal, R. (2018). Bioavailable curcumin formulations: A review of pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers. Journal of integrative medicine, 16(6), 367-374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2018.07.001
  7. Adegoke, G. O., Oyekunle, A. O., & Afolabi, M. O. (2017). Functional biscuits from wheat, soya bean and turmeric (Curcuma longa): optimization of ingredients levels using response surface methodology. Res J Food Nutr, 1, 13-22.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-003-0683-6
  8. Al-Obaidi, L. F. H. (2019). Effect of adding different concentrations of turmeric powder on the chemical composition, oxidative stability and microbiology of the soft cheese. Plant Arch, 19, 317-321. 
  9. de Carvalho, F. A. L., Munekata, P. E., de Oliveira, A. L., Pateiro, M., Domínguez, R., Trindade, M. A., & Lorenzo, J. M. (2020). Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract on oxidative stability, physicochemical and sensory properties of fresh lamb sausage with fat replacement by tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) oil. Food Research International, 136, 109487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109487
  10. Sharma RA, Euden SA, Platton SL, Cooke DN, Shafayat A, Hewitt HR, et al. Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(20):6847–6854. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0744
  11. Garcea G, Berry DP, Jones DJ, Singh R, Dennison AR, Farmer PB, et al. Consumption of the putative chemopreventive agent curcumin by cancer patients: assessment of curcumin levels in the colorectum and their pharmacodynamic consequences. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(1):120–125.
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  13. Bayet-Robert M, Kwiatkowski F, Leheurteur M, Gachon F, Planchat E, Abrial C, et al. Phase I dose escalation trial of docetaxel plus curcumin in patients with advanced and metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010;9(1):8–14. doi: 10.4161/cbt.9.1.10392
  14. Vadhan-Raj S, Weber D, Wang M, Giralt S, Alexanian R, Thomas S, et al. Curcumin downregulates NF-КB and related genes in patients with multiple myeloma: results of a phase 1/2 study. Blood. 2007;110(11):357a.

Polasa K, Raghuram TC, Krishna TP, Krishnaswamy K. Effect of turmeric on urinary mutagens in smokers. Mutagenesis. 1992;7(2):107–109. doi: 10.1093/mutage/7.2.107.

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