What is the difference between bovine colostrum and human colostrum?
Bovine colostrum is the milk that cows generate for the first few days after giving birth. Antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines are abundant in it, and it protects the newborn calf against infections.
The global prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases (GID) and malignancies is increasing. Newborns that do not get enough colostrum have a weakened immune system and are more susceptible to microbial diseases. Colostrum, often known as the “elixir of life,” is nature’s ideal nourishment.
Infants who are breastfed have a decreased risk of gastrointestinal illnesses than those who are fed formula or cow’s milk. According to WHO data, cancer is the most common illness worldwide, causing 9.6 million deaths. Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery are some of the modern cancer treatment options. Chemotherapy and radiation, on the other hand, are frequently linked to significant long-term adverse effects. Furthermore, the expenses of hospitalisation and medicines for cancer treatment are expensive, putting a significant financial strain on healthcare systems. For the treatment of GID and malignancies, people are frantically seeking for cost-effective and inexpensive alternatives. As a result, clinical trials of anticancer substances derived from plants and animals are urgently needed. Such treatments might be beneficial. Many researchers have recently been interested in studying the anticancer potential of bovine colostrum (BC) in humans. Chronic sores and diabetic foot ulcers respond well to dressings impregnated with BC.
Lactoferrin, a glycoprotein having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial properties, is abundant in BC. BC pills used intravaginally are successful in reversing low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
Lactoferrin and Lactalbumin’s Roles in Cancer Therapy
Lactoferrin (LF) is a powerful immune modulator and anticancer drug with the ability to regenerate tissue. It can also stop inflammatory cytokines from being produced. Lactalbumin is found in whey and has been shown to boost immunological response and glutathione production. Lactoferrin and lactalbumin have been shown to cause apoptosis in malignant cells.
LF has been shown to increase caspase-1 and IL-18 levels, which reduces metastatic foci in the gut. LF-induced apoptosis has also been seen in cytotoxic T and natural killer (NK) cells. LF also suppresses the hepatic CYP1A2 enzyme, which is responsible for carcinogen activation. Because of its capacity to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, LF might be used as a carrier for chemotherapeutic drugs, particularly in the treatment of brain tumours.
As a result, it appears that LF and whey lactalbumin might be used in conjunction with chemo- and radiation to treat cancer. This strategy would not only improve medication chemotherapeutic effectiveness, but it would also minimise the usage of chemo- and radiation, resulting in fewer negative side effects in cancer patients.
In vitro cell culture studies in chosen cancer cell lines have been shown to be a promising method for determining the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of prospective anticancer drugs obtained from natural sources or manufactured in the lab. Anticancer drugs’ mechanisms of action against cancer cells are elucidated in vitro cell culture research. Lactoferrin’s anti-cancer properties were discovered.
The development of esophageal cancer cell lines (KYSE-30) and HEK cancer cell lines was slowed by purified lactoferrin (2 mg/ml). After 62 hours of exposure, the addition of 500 g/ml lactoferrin to the culture medium reduced the viability of KYSE-30 cancer cells by 80%. The normal HEK cell line had no impact. Lactoferrin promoted apoptosis in KYSE-30 hu cells, according to flow cytometry analyses.
The anticancer effects of BC components (lactoferrin, liposomal bovine lactoferrin, bovine lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin nanoparticles, and conjugated linolenic acid) were assessed in vitro on several cancer cell lines (e.g., gastric cancer, esophagus cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer).