chat icon

WhatsApp Expert

Book Free Consult

Stages of Bile Duct Cancer

Stages of Bile Duct Cancer

Executive Summary

The staging system of bile duct cancer depends upon the size of the tumor, its metastasis and its time of occurrence. The TNM staging system is used as staging approach for bile duct carcinoma. The total five stages of bile duct cancer are determined: stage 0, stage I, stage II, stage III, and stage IV. The bile duct cancer originated in perihilar, distal extrahepatic, or intrahepatic that evolves through the staging of bile duct malignancies. Local, regional, or distant have been used for describing the stages of bile duct cancer. Perihilar bile duct cancer involves stages ranging from stage 0, stage I, stage II, stage IIIB, stage IIIC, stage IVA, stage IVB. Distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer involves stages ranging as stage 0, stage I, stage IIA, stage IIB, stage IIIA, stage IIIB, and stage IV. Intrahepatic bile duct cancer involves stages ranging as stage I, stage II, stage IIIA, stage IIIB, and stage IV. Recurrent bile duct cancer is observed among the patients even after they have completed their treatment.

Staging System of Bile Duct Cancer

There are various Stages of Bile Duct Cancer. Staging is a term used to characterize or categorize cancer depending on how much cancer is present in the body and when it is discovered. It is sometimes referred to as cancer's extent. Test results evaluate the tumor's size, whether bile ducts have cancer, if cancer spread from its original location, and where the disease has disseminated. Your healthcare team uses the stage to plan therapy and predict the outcome (your prognosis).

The TNM method is the most widely used staging approach for bile duct carcinoma ?1?. There are five stages of bile duct cancer: stage 0, stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, and stage 4. Stages 1 to 4 are frequently written as I, II, III, and IV in Roman numerals. The higher the stage, the more advanced cancer. If you have any questions about staging, talk to your doctor.

Depending on which bile duct cancer started in - perihilar, distal extrahepatic, or intrahepatic bile duct malignancies are staged in three ways.

Doctors may use the terms local, regional, or distant to describe the stage. The term "local" refers to cancer that has only spread to the bile ducts and has not disseminated to other body areas. Regional standards are located near or around the bile ducts. The term "far" refers to a location outside the bile ducts.

Perihilar Bile duct cancer

Perihilar bile duct cancer is classified into the following stages. These ducts are located just outside and close to the liver.

  • Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ):

The tumour is only in the innermost layer of the bile duct wall

  • Stage 1:

The tumor has progressed through the bile duct wall's deeper layers, up to the muscle or fibrous tissue layers.

  • Stage 2:

The tumor has progressed beyond the bile duct wall into the surrounding fat or into the liver.

On only one side of the liver, the tumor has developed into branches of the main blood vessel (portal vein or hepatic artery).

  • Stage 3B:

The tumor has progressed to one of the following stages:

On both sides of the liver the portal vein. This blood vessel transports blood from the digestive system to the liver) or branches of the portal vein

The artery that runs through the middle of the liver is known as the common hepatic artery. This blood vessel carries oxygen-rich blood to the liver)

On one side of the liver, there are various bile ducts, while on the other side, there is the main blood vessel (portal vein or hepatic artery).

  • Stage 3C:

Cancer has progressed to one to three lymph nodes nearby.

  • Stage 4A -

Cancer has progressed to four or more lymph nodes in the area.

  • Stage 4B -

Cancer has spread to other parts of the body (referred to as distant metastasis), such as the pancreasor small intestine. It is also called Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Also Read:Symptoms based on Cancer types.

Distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer

For distal extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma, the following stages are used. This duct is located outside of the liver and distant from it ?2?.

  • Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ):

The tumor is only in the innermost layer of the bile duct wall.

  • Stage 1:

The tumour has developed less than 5 mm into the bile duct wall.

  • Stage 2A -

The tumor has developed less than 5 mm into the bile duct wall. Cancer has also migrated to one to three lymph nodes nearby.

Alternatively, the tumour has developed 5 to 12 mm into the bile duct wall.

  • Stage 2B -

The tumor has penetrated the bile duct wall 5 to 12 mm deep. Cancer has also migrated to one to three lymph nodes nearby.

Or the tumour has grown deeper than 12 mm into the bile duct wall.

  • Stage 3A -

The tumor has grown to any depth into the bile duct wall. Cancer has also progressed to four or more lymph nodes in the area.

  • Stage 3B

Cancer has spread to the celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, or common hepatic artery, among other blood vessels in the abdomen. It's possible that cancer has spread to adjacent lymph nodes.

  • Stage 4 -

Cancer has spread to other parts of the body (distant metastasis), such as the liver, pancreas, or small intestine, and is referred to as metastatic bile duct cancer.

Intrahepatic bile duct cancer

For intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma, the following stages are employed. The liver has these tiny ducts ?3?.

  • Stage 1:

A single tumor is found in a bile duct. The tumor must be less than 5 cm in diameter to be classified as stage 1A. The tumor must be more than 5 cm in size to be classified as stage 1B.

  • Stage 2:

A single tumor in the liver has expanded into blood vessels. Alternatively, numerous tumors could have formed in the liver's blood arteries.

  • Stage 3A -

The tumor has pierced the covering and supporting membrane of the liver (visceral peritoneum).

  • Stage 3B -

Outside of the liver, the tumor has spread to neighbouring tissues. Alternatively, the malignancy may have migrated to adjacent lymph nodes.

  • Stage 4 -

Cancer has spread to other areas of the body, such as the pancreas or small intestine (distant metastasis). This type of cancer is also known as metastatic bile duct cancer.

Recurrent Bile Duct cancer

The term "recurrent bile duct cancer" refers to cancer that has returned after treatment. Local recurrence occurs when cancer returns to the same location where it first appeared. Assume it resurfaces in tissues or lymph nodes near where it began. It's also possible that it'll happen again in another part of the body. The term "distant metastasis" or "remote recurrence" refers to this.

References

  1. 1.
    Blechacz B, Komuta M, Roskams T, Gores GJ. Clinical diagnosis and staging of cholangiocarcinoma. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. Published online August 2, 2011:512-522. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2011.131
  2. 2.
    Ganeshan D. Extrahepatic biliary cancer: New staging classification. WJR. Published online 2012:345. doi:10.4329/wjr.v4.i8.345
  3. 3.
    Yang J, Yan LN. Current status of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. WJG. Published online 2008:6289. doi:10.3748/wjg.14.6289
Related Articles
We're here to help you. Contact ZenOnco.io at [email protected] or call +91 99 3070 9000 for any assistance