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Examination of the covering layer (mucosa) covering the inside of the rectum with a special tool is called proctoscopy (rectoscopy or rectosigmoidoscopy).

It is usually done to look for tumors, polyps, inflammation, bleeding, or hemorrhoids.

The rectum is 12-15 cm long and is the name given to the section that connects the large intestine to the anus. It forms the mouth of the intestine that opens out of the body. Stool residues and gas are thrown out of the body.

With the help of a 20-30 cm long metal tool, the last part of the large intestine, the rectum, and the sigmoid colon can be examined.


In the diagnosis of the anus (breech) and rectum diseases, in addition to physical examination, rectoscopy can be used. The doctor may use this examination to investigate the cause of these complaints in patients with blood in stool, pain around the anus, discharge, fistula, difficulty in defecation. In addition, this method is frequently used in the treatment and post-treatment follow-up of polyps located in the anus (rectum) and rectum.


The most important preparation for rectoscopy is to thoroughly clean out the rectum. This must be done. The more completely the rectum is emptied, the easier it is for the doctor to examine it.

Various methods can be used to clean the rectum; your doctor will recommend the best way for your case. Many doctors will recommend using an enema to clear waste. Be sure to follow instructions as directed.


This examination can be done daily in outpatient conditions. It can be performed in rectoscopy (rectosigmoidoscopy) at the place where the physical examination of the patients is performed. It is a simple review. This examination can be done in many examination positions. The most preferable form is the examination while lying on the patient's left side position on the examination table. After the clothing below the waist is lowered down, the doctor carefully inserts the index finger he wears in the anus (breech) and checks the area for pain, tenderness, and obstruction first. The metal rectoscope (rectosigmoidoscope), on which lubricant gel is applied, then moves from the anus (the anus) towards the rectum, the last part of the large intestine that opens outwards. Air is introduced into the rectum for easy device progression. Meanwhile, the patient may need fullness and defecation. During the examination, polyps can be removed, and/or tissue samples (biopsy) can be taken with the help of special tools. When the review is finished, the device is removed.

In most patients, no sedation or anesthesia is required during this examination. Cramps or pressure may be felt as the rectoscope (rectosigmoidoscope) progresses through the rectum. The pain is hardly heard. During the inspection, the gas leak or gas removal is normal. Therefore, it should not be ashamed. If the cramps persist after the examination, it is useful to walk a little. Gas extraction reduces complaints. The review normally takes 5-10 minutes.


There is little risk associated with rectoscopy. It is possible that a patient may experience rectal bleeding as a result of the insertion of the rectoscope or if the lining of the rectum is irritated. A patient may also develop an infection after the procedure. Both complications are rare.

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