Prostate Cancer

What is prostate cancer?

Seminal vesicles and the prostrate are the integral parts of the reproductive system of men. The prostrate usually weighs one ounce. Seminal vesicles are comparatively smaller glands present on different sides of the prostate. Prostrate plays a vital role in producing the fluid for bathe semen. The fluid present in the prostrate transfers to the urethra in the process of ejaculation. On the occurrence of prostate cancer, the cells start spreading and growing in number. 

Prostate cancer originates when cancer cells rapidly start multiplying in the body. Prostrate, in a nutshell, is a distinctively minute walnut-shaped gland located in the pelvis of the males. Situated in the bladder, prostate cancer can be detected through a digital rectal exam. This cancer is the second-most effective death causes in men. Prostate carcinoma cells usually start spreading after the prostrate tumor breaks. They move from the blood vessels to other parts of the body like lymph nodes. Furthermore, the cancer cells attach themselves to the tissues and develop into new tumors. Usually, the prostate cancer cells spread to the seminal vesicles.

What are the types of Prostate cancer? 

Studies suggest that millions of men fall victim of prostate cancer in the USA. Different types of prostate cancer include adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, prostate sarcomas, squamous cell carcinomas, small-cell carcinomas, and transitional cell carcinomas. 

 

Adenocarcinoma

This Cancer type makes up an extensive majority of the cases of prostate cancer. Experts suggest that about 95% of prostate cancer cases are Adenocarcinoma. About 9 out of 10 adenocarcinoma cancers are acinar while the minimal fraction is ductal. Acinar Adenocarcinoma originates in the acini cells and enhances the prostate-specific antigen levels. The cancer cells additionally produce line fluid-secreting glands and clusters. Ductal Adenocarcinoma originates in the cells of the prostate gland’s ducts and does not necessarily affect PSA levels. Ductal Adenocarcinoma is thus difficult to detect and can spread rapidly compared to acinar Adenocarcinoma.

 

Neuroendocrine Tumors

Neuroendocrine tumors are often called carcinoids. Located in the neuroendocrine system, these tumors start developing slowly. Neuroendocrine system consists of gland and nerve cells that play an imperative role in producing and transferring the hormones in the bloodstream. Neuroendocrine tumors originate in the digestive system, thereby spreading to other places like the prostate. These cancers occur rarely and do not have an impact on the prostate-specific antigen levels. NETS are hereditary in nature and are responsible for secreting their hormones. The symptoms of these hormones are irregular heartbeat, wheezing, diarrhea, dizziness, skin flushing, and fatigue. 

 

Prostate sarcomas 

Sarcomas are the rarest type of prostate cancers and contribute to about 0.1% of the total cases of prostate cancer. This cancer originates In the soft tissues that comprise nerves and muscles. Soft tissues are located all over the human body. Sarcomas can spread everywhere in the body. The commonly affected regions of the sarcomas in the lungs. Sarcomas tend to break, thereby spreading in different regions of the body. The commonly known prostate sarcomas are rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcomas. These cancers usually affect men aged 35 to 60. Studies have reported that very minimal cases have been detected in children. These sarcomas can be extremely difficult to detect and do not impact the PSA levels. 

 

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma is an advanced, rare, but rapidly spreading prostate cancer. The cancer, in-line other prostate cancers does not originate in the gland cells. It initiated in the flat cells of prostate glands. Squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive type of prostate carcinoma cancer and can effectively spread to different parts of the body. 

 

Small Cell carcinoma 

Small cell carcinoma is directly linked to neuroendocrine cancer and is a rare type of prostate cancer. These cancers are aggressive and do not affect the levels of PSA. About 1% of the total number of prostate cancers are small cell carcinoma.  In most cases, small cell carcinoma is metastasized before its detection. Most cases cannot utilize basic treatments such as hormone therapy because the cancer is too advanced. Due to the poor prognosis of this cancer, the estimated life expectancy of the patients is less than a year. 

 

Transitional cell carcinoma

Transitional cell carcinoma or urothelial cancer originates from the prostate structures and the urethra’s cell lining. Prostate cancer can usually grow as the fundamental tumors in the bladder and the urethra. The tumors break after which they start spreading rapidly to different body parts. Transitional cell carcinoma usually initiates with urine blood. This cancer type is rare and advanced due to which enhanced treatment is vitally required.

 

What are the early signs of Prostate cancer?

Most often, prostate cancer does not show potential symptoms and signs in its early stages. Advanced prostate cancer can show the following type of symptoms.

 

  • Difficulty in urinating
  • Bloody discharge of the semen
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Bone pain 
  • Irritability in the pelvic region
  • Less force in the urine stream

 

Causes of prostate cancer 

The orientation of prostate cancer is still unknown. Autopsy reports suggest that 1 out of 3 men aged 50 or more have distinctive cancer cells located in the prostate. Although the cancer causes or vaguely unknown, a plethora of risk factors are involved in the development of this cancer.

 

Ethnicity 

Studies suggest that African American men are primitively exposed to prostate cancer compared to other ethnicities. One out of six African American men have potential risk of prostate cancer. Why African American men are more prone to this cancer is vividly unknown. However, socioeconomic, diet and environmental factors might be the potential cause. 

 

Heredity

Prostate cancer is genetic. Men who have a family history of this type of cancer have an increased risk of developing it. Makes with a family history have a three times more likelihood of being diagnosed with different types of prostate cancer

 

Age 

Aging can also relatively increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. Men who are aged 55 or more are highly likely to obtain prostate cancer. The cancer cells eventually start multiplying and spreading at a rapid rate. 

 

Diet 

The lifestyle and diet you maintain are solely linked to the risk of prostate cancer. Consuming more refined sugar, animal fats, low vegetables, and fruits can leave you more vulnerable to prostate cancer. Minimal exercising can also affect this factor. 

 

Additional 

Smoking, excessive drinking, environmental exposures, and psychological factors like stress, are all linked to increasing the risk of prostate cancer.

 

How to prevent Prostate cancer

Adhering to a healthy lifestyle can help lower the risk of developing prostate cancer. Consulting your doctor for different medications can help reduce the risk of obtaining prostate cancer. A few of the other prevention methods are as follows. 

 

Eat a healthy diet

Balancing your diet with healthy carbs, proteins, fats, and other components is the key to maintaining a healthy body. Avoid eating high-fat foods. Eat more whole grains, fruits, and vegetables that are high in nutrients and vitamins. Healthy eating can unquestionably enhance your overall health which can substantially decrease your vulnerability to prostate cancer. 

 

Don’t consume supplements

No verified studies report that supplements can lower the risk of obtaining prostate cancer. Healthy food is always better than supplements. Consume food that is rich in proteins, minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. 

 

Avoid obesity

Obesity can be the dynamic cause of a multitude of health conditions. Maintain the right weight in highly crucial to avoid exposing yourself to prostate cancer. Consulting a doctor for a reliable health plan can be beneficial for losing or gaining the right weight for your body. 

 

Exercise regularly

Exercising on a timely basis has countless benefits starting from boosting your mood, improving your health, and lowering the risk of potential health conditions. Studies have reported that many men who do minimal physical activities have been Mahender PSA levels. Exercising for 30 minutes per day can help substantially enhance your health levels.

 

Risks involved in prostate cancer 

 

  • Age Aging can enhance the development of prostate cancer, especially in men aged above 50. 
  • Obesity– Obese men can have a higher risk of developing advanced prostate cancer. 
  • Family history- men with a family history of prostate cancer are more prone to developing it. 
  • Race- Black men have an increased rate of prostate cancer due to unknown reasons.

 

Different diagnosis for prostate cancer 

Distinctive Screenings play a crucial role in detecting abnormalities in the prostate, thereby requiring diagnosis. 

 

Prostate Cancer screening 

Many reputed organizations suggest that men should consider prostate cancer screening at the ages of 50 or more. Prostate cancer screening tests are of two types. 

 

  • Digital rectal exam- In a DRE, the doctor puts a lubricated and gloved finger directly into the rectum for analyzing your prostate. Irregularities in the shape, texture, and size of the gland can be potentially helpful for understanding the need for additional tests.

 

  • Prostate-specific antigen test- In PSA blood test, the doctors take a blood sample to detect PSA, a liquid produced by the prostate gland. Of the PSA levels in your body or higher than usual, indication of prostate infection, enlargement of cancer, and inflammation can be potential causes. 

 

DRE and PSA test blend to help detect prostate cancer at initial stages. The additional tests that are recommended after DRE and PSA are as follows.

 

  • Ultrasound- On the detection of different irregularities and abnormalities in the prostate, doctors recommend doing an ultrasound. Ultrasound plays a vital role in the evaluation of the prostate. Doctors insert a minute probe that is cigar-shaped into the rectum. The probe, furthermore, utilizes kind waves for creating an image of your prostate glands. 

 

  • Prostate tissue sample test- For additional examination, doctors suggest opting for a procedure that involves collecting prostate tissue cell samples. This method is called as prostate biopsy. Doctors make use of a miniature needle to collect the tissue sample. Lab analysis helps to determine the presence of cancerous cells in the prostate. 

 

  • MRI fusion– MRI fusion plays a requisite role in the examination and detection of cancer cells while performing Ultrasound and prostate biopsy. 

 

At Zen Onco, radiologists and urologists associate together for analyzing and detecting cancer cells by leveraging the NEI fusion biopsy system. We aim to offer the most relevant fusion imaging pictorial representation for detecting the clever cells.

 

Determination of the behavior of the prostate cancer 

Biopsy determines the cancer presence. Followed by the detection of the cancer, determining the aggressive behavior of the cancer cells is crucial. Our reliable laboratory pathologists help detect the behavior of the cancer through a prostate tissue sample. Interpreting how many cells are healthy and how many are cancerous can help in analyzing the aggressiveness of the cancer. Advanced and aggressive cancers are more likely to spread rapidly to different regions of the body. Most doctors are making use of genomic testing to accurately analyze the risk of cancer and its nature. 

 

Analyzing the affected regions of the cancer 

After analyzing the above Tests, determining the affected body regions by the cancer is essential. Advanced prostate cancer can spread to various areas of the body. This can be determined by

 

  • Ultrasound 
  • Bone scan 
  • CT scan (computerized tomography) 
  • (MRI) Magnetic Resonance imaging 
  • Positron emission tomography scan (PET)

 

Treating different stages of prostate cancer 

Prostate cancer treatments are solely dependent on a multitude of factors like speed of the cancer growth and stage of the cancer.

 

Surgery 

Surgery chiefly revolves around radical prostatectomy (removal of prostate gland). Radical prostatectomy can be chiefly performed in 2 different ways. 

 

  • Creating an incision in the abdomen– Retropubic surgery involves taking out the prostate gland by incision in the lower abdomen.

 

  • Robot assistance while therapy- A robot-assisted surgery involves attaching instruments to a robot. These instruments are then inserted into the abdomen of your body by numerous incisions. Robotic prostatectomy plays a brilliant role in administering and organizing meticulous movements for the surgery. 

 

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy utilizes high-peered sources to eliminate cancer cells in two different methods. 

 

  • External beam radiation- In a nutshell, external beam radiation is the radiation that occurs on the outside of the body. During this process, you are required to lie down on a table beside the movable machine. This movable machine directs high-powered beams like protons or X-rays to detect and treat prostate cancer. External beam radiation takes about 5 days minimum and can stretch up to several weeks. 

 

  • Brachytherapy- Brachytherapy is the process of placing several radioactive seeds of the size of rice into the prostate tissue. These seeds offer a minimum dose of radiation for an expanded time. The doctor then implants these seeds into the prostate with the help of an ultrasound and needle. These seeds coherently stop emitting radiation due to which you don’t have to remove them. 

 

Hormone Therapy

Hormone treatment is usually done to eliminate male hormone testosterone from the. IDP. Prostate cancer cells solely depend on testosterone for their development. Stopping the testosterone supply can slow down the growth of cancer cells. Three types of hormone therapies include- 

 

 

  • Orchiectomy (testicles removal surgery) 

 

  • Medications for blocking the testosterone from cancer cells
  • Testosterone eliminating medications

 

Chemotherapy 

Chemotherapy is the process of utilizing drugs to epilate the rapidly evolving cancerous cells. Chemotherapy is retailers by injecting the drug into your veins or by consuming it through pills. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatments that helps in treating the prostate cancer cells which are spread throughout the body. 

 

Freezing prostate tissue 

Cryoablation or cryosurgery is the process of freezing the tissue to eliminate and kill the cancer cells. During the process of cryosurgery, doctors make use of small needles to insert I to the prostate gland, along with utilizing ultrasound images for thorough guidance. The needles comprise a cold gas that freezes the surrounding tissue of the prostate gland. The second gas inserted into the prostate heats the tissue. The consistent cycles of thawing and freezing play a crucial role in killing the cancer cells and adjacent healthy tissues to avoid reinfection. 

 

Biological therapy 

Immunotherapy also known as biological therapy is the process of combating cancer cells with the help of the immune system. Provence is a popular biological therapy used for treating advanced prostate cancer. It is also utilized for treating recurrent prostate cancer. This treatment involves collecting your immune cells to combat prostate cancer. These cells are removed and enhanced by laboratory methodologies, thereby injecting them into the body for an enhanced prostate cancer treatment.

 

Stage I- Stage 0 comprises minute tumors that affect only small portions of the body. In this stage, the PSA levels and Gleason scores are comparatively low. This stage doesn’t consist of any noticeable symptoms. DRE or ultrasound do not help in detecting the tumor. Routine screening is the most vital method of treating cancer.  Due to the well-differentiation of the cancer cells, distinguishing between the healthy and damaged cells becomes difficult. Stage I prostate cancer is said to have a discovery rate of about 80% and the survival rate of about 5-years or 100%. Radiotherapy is the most primary treatment that men can opt for. 

 

Stage II– Medical tests do not usually reveal the prostate tumor in stage II. However, ultrasound and DRE play a vital role in detecting the aggressiveness of the cancer. The PSA levels at this stage are between 10-20. The Gleason Score can start from 6 and rise to 8. Stage II cancer is classified into two parts, IIA and IIB. The tumor might or might not detect the affected regions of the cancer through imaging tests. The cancer cells can, however, start growing rapidly at this stage. Although stage II cancers aren’t developed outside the prostate, their growth is rapid. Symptoms of this cancer might be difficulty in urination and bloody urinal discharge. Treatments for this stage are- Brachytherapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy, external beam radiation therapy, clinical trials, etc. The survival rate of Stage II cancer is 100% or 5-years. 

 

Stage III- Stage III is a considerably critical cancer that spreads beyond different body parts of the prostate gland. It can reach the seminal vesicles (semen-producing gland). However, the cancer cells do not reach the rectum or bladder. The PSA levels can reach up to 20 or more. This cancer type most often comes back after the treatment. External beam therapy, radiation therapy, and radical prostatectomy are a few of the primary treatments for Stage III prostate cancer. Symptoms at this stage can be fatigue, bloody semen discharge, and difficulty in urination. The survival rate of Stage III cancer is almost 100% at 5-years. 

 

Stage IV- The last and most critical stage of the prostate cancer is Stage IV cancer that spreads to different areas of the body such as close-by organs, bladder, lymph nodes, and rectum. It can moreover transfer to distant organs like the liver and bone. After spreading to other body parts, this cancer is called metastatic prostate cancer. PSA levels and Gleason score at this stage can have any number. Surgery, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy are the most fundamental treatments for curing prostate cancer at this stage. Bloody semen discharge, fatigue and nausea, and erectile dysfunction are the common symptoms noticed in this stage. The survival rate at this stage is 29% at 5-years.

 

Integrative treatment for prostate cancer 

Integrative treatment for prostate cancer includes community support, healthy lifestyle measures, clean environment surroundings, stress-free mental health, good sleep schedule, and regular exercise. 

 

Life in Remission 

Prostate cancer treatment can be extremely overwhelming and can take away your hope and will to live. The side effects that can occur after the treatment can be traumatizing. However, engaging with your loved ones and asking for community support can help boost your mood during this emotional phase. A few of the side-effects that you might experience are-

 

 

  • Weakness and Fatigue 

 

Fatigue is the most common factors linked to cancer treatment. The distressing side-effect of cancer-treatment can leave you feeling extremely weak, unable to do your daily chores. Mild exercising, eating healthy, and sleeping on time can help mitigate the feeling of fatigue and weakness, along with helping your bolster your mood.

 

 

  • Shortness of breath 

 

Prostate cancer treatment and prostate cancer symptoms can lead to shortness of breath. A feeling of breathlessness, also called as dyspnea can be petrifying and happens in seconds. Staying calm and composed and avoiding heavy lifting and tiresome tasks until you completely recover from the cancer treatment can help reduce the feeling of breathlessness.

 

 

  • Heartburn and hiccups

 

Cancer treatment can also lead to heartburn and hiccups in rare cases. The medications of chemotherapy and other cancer-related drugs vitally trigger these hiccups and can result in irritability of the diaphragm nerves. Drink water slowly, do not force yourself to eat, take deep breaths, and bear down gently to avoid heartburn and hiccups. 

 

 

  • Seizures 

 

Seizures are uncontrollable movements of muscles that color when the nerve cells of the brain are disturbed and irritated. Seizures last for less than a few minutes and can occur multiple times during a day. Chemotherapy, brain swelling, blood clots, can all lead to seizures. Prostate cancer patients rarely suffer from seizures due. Mediating every day and staying calm can help minimize seizures.

 

How can we at ZenOnco.io help? 

Other than the above-mentioned side effects, prostate cancer patients experience several distressing effects like hair loss, constipation, dehydration, and anxiety. In times like these, being mentally strong and stable is highly essential. We at ZenOnco are a prestigious community aiming to help you heal from your trauma. We are here to offer maximal support your help you become mentally and physically strong and fit. We understand how upsetting the whole process of cancer treatment is. We’ve narrowed down a few of the most vital methods of healing and coming out of this journey. 

 

  1. Practice self-care

Healthy eating and sleeping on time contribute to living a risk-free life. One must make it a habit to eat nutritious proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and other nutrients to ensure maintaining a healthy body. Cancer treatment can make your body weak. Thus, do your part by taking care of your body and pampering it with necessities. 

 

  1. Exercise on a timely basis 

Exercising every day can boost your metabolism and help you avoid future health conditions. A healthy body requires a good amount of nutrition and fitness. Obesity can lead to several health conditions. Mild exercising can help calm your mind, along with healing your body entirely. Make sure to avoid rigorous workout sessions. However, consulting your doctor is best advised. 

 

  1. Ensure cancer-proofing your home and surroundings

A clean environment is a win-win situation for you when it comes to healing from your cancer treatment. It is but obvious that living in a secure infrastructure can help you stay healthy and happy in the long run. Cancer-proofing your home is a must when it comes to protecting your life. 

 

  1. Stay calm and composed 

We understand how dreadful it is to go through cancer treatment. Prostate cancer is undeniably painful. The entire treatment process can be traumatizing. However, staying strong, calm, and composed can help you come out of this stronger and healthier. Increases stress levels can cause recurrent cancer. To safeguard your life entirely, meditating daily and staying calm is vital. 

 

  1. Ask for community support 

We at Zen Onco are devoted to offer worthwhile community support. We believe that combating cancer and it’s treatment unitedly can help make each other stronger. Our exceptionally friendly and cost-effective community support aims to help you overcome the journey of this deadly disease.