Vitamin K

INTRODUCTION

Vitamin K is a group of fat-soluble vitamins that aid in blood clotting, bone metabolism, and calcium regulation. Vitamin K aids in the formation of blood clots, thereby preventing excessive bleeding. Vitamin K, unlike many other vitamins, is not commonly used as a dietary supplement. Vitamin K exists in two varieties: vitamin K1, or phylloquinone, which is found primarily in some vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables such as canola and soybean oils; and vitamin K2, or menaquinone, which is found primarily in meat and cheese. Vitamin K is a collection of compounds. Vitamins K1 and K2 appear to be the most important of these compounds. Vitamin K1 is found in leafy greens and a few other vegetables. Vitamin K2 is a class of compounds derived primarily from meats, cheeses, and eggs and synthesised by bacteria. The findings are based on data from 24,340 German adults between the ages of 35 and 64 who were cancer-free at the start.

Based on a detailed dietary questionnaire, the researchers estimated the participants’ typical vitamin K intake. In general, the researchers discovered that one-quarter of men and women Those who consumed the most vitamin K2 were 28% less likely to die from any of the cancers than the one-quarter with the lowest intakes of the vitamin. This was after considering age, weight, exercise habits, smoking, and consumption of certain other nutrients such as fibre and calcium. One-quarter of the study participants who received the least vitamin K2 (156, or 2.6 per cent) died from one of the four cancers.

It was  true for 1.6 per cent of participants who got the most vitamin D from food. When Linseisin’s team looked at the cancer types separately, they found no clear link between either form of vitamin K and breast or colon cancer. Increased vitamin K2 consumption, on the other hand, has been linked to a lower risk of developing or dying from lung cancer – a disease for which smoking is a significant risk factor – or of developing prostate cancer1(Higher Vitamin K Intake Tied to Lower Cancer Risks | Reuters, n.d.).47 (or 0.8 per cent,) of study participants with the lowest vitamin K2 intakes developed lung cancer, compared to 0.4 per cent of those with the highest vitamin K2 intakes. There were 111 cases among the one-quIn theory, vitamin K could provide some cancer protection.

It is frequently used to counteract excessive blood thinner doses, though this has no apparent link to cancer. However, in laboratory studies, Linseisin and his colleagues point out that the vitamin has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth and promote apoptosis, which abnormal cells kill themselves after of men who consumed the least vitamin K2 65 cases among those who consumed the most. According to the researchers, it is unclear whether vitamin K intake is responsible for the lower cancer risks in this study. One limitation is that they estimated vitamin K intake based on participants’ reported eating habits; most of their vitamin K came from dairy products. Cheese, and some other components of that food may be linked to cancer, according to Linseisin his colleagues.

Vitamin K Varieties

There are three types of vitamin K, but the human body requires only two.

Phylloquinone is another name for vitamin K1. It is found primarily in plants. It aids in the clotting of blood in the liver.

Vitamin K2 – Also known as menaquinone, it is commonly found in animal and fermented foods.

Vitamin K and Cancer

Clinical trials have shown that VK2 has the potential to improve the prognosis of cancer patients. Furthermore, evidence suggests that VK2 treatment can prevent HCC in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and that VK2 consumption can reduce the risk of developing cancer, particularly prostate and lung cancer2(Xv et al., 2018). Furthermore, VK2 has been shown in animal studies to inhibit tumour cell growth, with cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis being involved. In vitro studies confirmed VK2’s ability to inhibit the growth of several cancer cell lines. Finally, VK2 can inhibit cancer cells positively. VK2 appears to be an up-and-coming agent with very low toxicity that could be a valuable option for cancer prevention and clinical therapy. However, the inhibition of vitamin K and D in cancers suggested that vitamins may have beneficial effects on tumour prevention and treatment.

 Vitamin K is now known to be a component of a microsomal carboxylase system. This system’s studies have yielded unfavourable results. VitaminK antivitamins may prove beneficial clinically, especially in the prevention of metastasis. The high recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma determines the prognosis for patients with the disease and any therapy used to treat the condition and Maybe used to treat the disease. Reduces recurrence will continuously improve long-term outcomes. As a result, it is believed that combining vitamin K2 with other chemical agents in the treatment of liver cancer can reduce the rate of recurrence.

Vitamin K1 has been studied in several clinical cancer trials and has been found to play an essential role in a variety of cancers. For example, some studies have found that patients with liver cancer typically require vitamin K1 because the cancerous liver cannot process this vitamin to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Vitamin K1 can be combined with chemotherapy to increase its effectiveness. Vitamin K1 has also been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth in patients with leukaemia, gastric cancer, nasopharynx cancer, breast cancer, and oral epidermoid cancer. Vitamins K1 and K2 are both crucial in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer typically manifests at an advanced stage and is thus incurable. Vitamin K2 is an essential treatment for leukaemia patients. Leukaemia is cancer that progresses in the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs, causing many abnormal blood cells to be produced. Leukaemia typically begins in white blood cells and spreads to the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and other organs. Leukaemia cancer comes in various forms4(Vitamin K an Ideal Therapy for Cancer | The New Times | Rwanda, n.d.). Patients with prostate cancer Require vitamin K2 supplements as well. Vitamin K2 can help prevent prostate cancer and slow its progression.

VK2 has been shown in studies published in European oncology journals in 2013 apoptosis was used to suppress both androgen-independent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. Tumour growth was significantly reduced after treatment with vitamin K2.

Liver and Prostate cancer

The promise of vitamin K in the treatment of various advanced solid tumours has been demonstrated in vitro and animal studies, with benefits shown in lung cancers but not in gastrointestinal cancers when combined with traditional chemotherapy6(Margolin et al., 1995).  Other studies had already demonstrated that massive doses of vitamin K2, up to more than 2.5 grammes given IV per day, were safe and did not cause an increase in chemotherapy toxicity7(Tetef et al., 1995)Two case reports, both from Japan, revealed additional positive results. In the first study, a 72-year-old woman with leukaemia who had failed standard therapy achieved complete remission after adding vitamin K2 to her treatment regimen. 29 In the second study, an 85-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma caused by hepatitis C chose vitamin K over chemotherapy. Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) has been shown to safely inhibit the growth and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma, a common and lethal type of liver cancer.  It has several effects on these tumours, modifying growth factors and their receptor molecules to be less capable of stimulating tumour growth and progression.  It stops the cell cycle, preventing further replication. Laboratory studies show that vitamin K has tremendous potential in a variety of other cancer types as well. 7 Certain types of human hormones are induced by vitamin K2. Leukaemia cells differentiate or turn into normal white blood cells.8 In cells from certain brain tumours, in stomach cancer, Vitamin K inhibits the reproductive cell cycle and induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer lines.  Vitamin K also activates a DNA-degrading protein that cancer cells produce. Usually suppress, thereby preventing tumour cells from repairing themselves effectively.12

Food and Sources

Vitamin K1 is abundant in leafy green vegetables like kale and Swiss chard. Vegetable oils and some fruits are also good sources. Menanoquines, or K2, can be found in meat, dairy products, eggs, and Japanese “natto,” made from fermented soybeans.

Some food sources for vitamin K

  • Ten sprigs of parsley contain 90 milligrammes (mcg)
  • A 3-ounce serving of natto has 850 mcg
  • While a half-cup serving of frozen and boiled collard greens has 530 mcg.
  • one cup of raw spinach contains 145 mcg
  • One tablespoon of soybean oil contains 25 mcg
  • a half-cup serving of grapes contains 11 mcg
  • a hard-boiled egg contains four mcg

1: Spinach

Dark, green spinach is considered the most nutritious source of vitamins, minerals, and iron Spinach contains a lot of vitamin K. 100 grammes of raw spinach contains 483 mcg of vitamin C. Try to eat spinach in natural form, or you can boil them strictly for 1 minute to prevent the loss of nutrients.

2. Broccoli 
Broccoli is packed with vitamins and antioxidants. It strengthens your immunity and destroys dangerous free radicles. The vitamin K content in one cup of cooked broccoli is 110 mcg. Be sure that it shouldn’t be overcooked; otherwise, it will lose its flavour and nutrition.

3. Collard greens

Collard greens are high in vitamin K, fibre, iron, calcium, and magnesium. It has anti-inflammatory properties and aids in the reduction of cholesterol levels. A cup of steamed collard greens contains approximately 836 mcg.

4.Mustard greens 

It is an excellent source of vitamin K. To prevent the leaves and stems from becoming watery and soft, sauté this vegetable rather than steaming or boiling it. 419 mcg vitamin K in one cup cooked mustard greens(Tetef et al., 1995)

Side effects

There is no safe upper limit for vitamin  K. Toxicity is uncommon and unlikely to occur due to consuming vitamin K-containing foods. Vitamin K can interact with various medications, including blood thinners, anticonvulsants, antibiotics, cholesterol-lowering medications, and weight-loss medications. Warfarin and other blood thinners are used to prevent dangerous blood clots from obstructing blood flow to the brain or heart. They work by reducing or delaying the ability of vitamin K to clot.  They work by reducing or delaying the ability of vitamin K to clot. Increasing or decreasing vitamin K intake abruptly can interfere with the effects of these medications. Keeping your vitamin K intake consistent from day to day can help you avoid these issues. Anticonvulsants can increase the risk of vitamin K deficiency in a foetus or newborn if taken during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. Anticonvulsants include phenytoin and dilantin.Cholesterol-lowering medications hamper fat absorption. Because dietary fat is required for vitamin K absorption, people taking this medication may be at a higher risk of deficiency. Anyone taking any of these medications should discuss their vitamin K intake with their doctor.

Toxicity of Vitamin-K

Excessive use of supplements can result in toxicity. Many medications interact with vitamin K, so use caution when taking it. It has a particular impact on the activity of blood thinners (such as Warfarin) and cholesterol-lowering medications3.

Conclusion

Vitamin K, which was previously associated only with blood clotting, is now known to affect tissues throughout the body, including the majority of the steps that lead up to cancer Vitamin K2 (VK2), which has anticancer activities, several cancer cell lines, is considered a prospective novel agent for cancer treatment. Recent discoveries about vitamin K demonstrate the enormous breadth of its targets, which span virtually every stage of cancer’s lethal progression. Vitamin K helps control cancer, but still, due to the unavailability of the data, it cannot be used as a therapeutic approach to cancer. A large clinical trial is needed for an accurate description of the effects of Vitamin K.