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Types of Stem Cell and Bone Marrow Transplantation

Types of Stem Cell and Bone Marrow Transplantation

When the bone marrow is damaged by illness, chemotherapy, or radiation, Cell and bone marrow transplantation are performed to restore the stem cells. The transplantation procedure is known by several names depending on where the stem cells originate from:

  • Bone marrow transplant (BMT)
  • Peripheral blood stem cell transplant
  • Cord blood transplant

They can all be called hematopoietic stem cell transplants.

To try to destroy all the cancer cells in a normal stem cell transplant for cancer, very high doses of chemo are utilized, often in combination with radiation treatment. The stem cells in the bone marrow are also killed by this therapy. Myeloablation, or myeloablative treatment, is the term for this procedure. Stem cells are supplied (transplanted) shortly after therapy to replace those that were killed. Similar to a blood transfusion, the replacement stem cells are injected into a vein.The objective is for the transplanted cells to settle in the bone marrow, develop, and produce healthy blood cells over time. Engraftment is the term for this procedure.

Autologous: Auto means self. The stem cells in autologous transplants come from the same person who will get the transplant, so the patient is their own donor.

Allogeneic: Allo means other. The stem cells in allogeneic transplants are from a person other than the patient, either a matched related or unrelated donor.

The initial step in this sort of transplant is to extract or harvest your own stem cells. Your stem cells are extracted and frozen from either your bone marrow or your blood. (For additional information on this process, see What Is It Like to Donate Stem Cells?) The stem cells are frozen and returned to you after you have received heavy doses of chemo and/or radiation as part of your myeloablative treatment. autologous stem cell transplants. Autologous stem cell transplant has a number of advantages, one of which is the fact that you get your own cells back. You won’t have to worry about your own stem cells (also known as engrafted cells or “graft”) being rejected by your body when you receive them back.

Autologous stem cell transplant risks include Graft failure, which implies that the transplanted stem cells do not get into the bone marrow and produce blood cells as they should. Furthermore, autologous transplants do not have the ability to create the “graft-versus-cancer” effect. An autologous transplant has the potential to harvest cancer cells along with the stem cells and then reintroduce them into your body. Another drawback is that your immune system remains unchanged from before the transplant. This implies that the cancer cells have previously evaded your immune system‘s onslaught and may be able to do so again. certain leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma are treated with this type of transplant. Other malignancies, such as testicular cancer and neuroblastoma, as well as some cancers in children, are occasionally treated with it. Other illnesses that can be treated with autologous transplants include systemic sclerosis, multiple sclerosis (MS), and systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus).

Getting rid of cancer cells in stem cells saved for autologous transplants

Some facilities treat stem cells before returning them to the patient to help prevent any residual cancer cells from being transplanted with them. This is referred to as cleansing. While this may assist some people, there aren’t enough research to determine if it is truly beneficial. Purging has the potential drawback of causing the loss of some normal stem cells. This might lead your body to take longer to begin producing regular blood cells, and you could end up with dangerously low levels of white blood cells or platelets for an extended period of time. Infections or bleeding issues may become more likely as a result of this.Giving anti-cancer medicines after the transplant is another way to help destroy cancer cells that may be present in the returning stem cells. The stem cells aren’t handled in any way. Anti-cancer medicines are given to the patient after the transplant to eliminate any cancer cells that may be present in the body. This is referred to as in vivo purging. For multiple myeloma, for example, lenalidomide (Revlimid®) might be administered in this fashion. The necessity to eliminate cancer cells from transplanted stem cells or transplant patients, as well as the optimal method for doing so, is still being investigated.

Tandem (double autologous) transplants

A tandem transplant, also known as a double autologous transplant, is when two autologous transplants are performed in a succession. The patient receives two cycles of high-dose chemo as myeloablative treatment, followed by a transplant of their own stem cells in this type of transplant. Before the initial high-dose chemo treatment, all of the stem cells needed are harvested, and half of them are used for each transplant. The two chemo treatments are usually administered within six months of each other. After the patient has recovered from the first, the second is administered. Tandem transplants have become the gold standard in the treatment of certain malignancies. Tandem transplants appear to be effective in high-risk forms of the children malignancy neuroblastoma and adult multiple myeloma. However, experts disagree on whether they are truly superior than a single transplant for some malignancies. Because this therapy entails two transplants, the risk of severe complications is higher than if only one transplant is performed.

Allogeneic stem cell transplants

Donor stem cells are used in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The stem cells in the most frequent form of allogeneic transplant originate from a donor whose tissue type is quite similar to yours. (Matching patients and donors discusses this.) A close relative, generally a brother or sister, is the best donor. If you don’t have a suitable match in your family, a national registry might help you find a donor from the general population. A MUD (matched unrelated donor) transplant is another name for this procedure. Transplants with a MUD are usually riskier than those with a relative who is a good match. Allogeneic transplants function similarly to autologous transplants. The donor’s stem cells are taken and preserved or frozen. The donor’s stem cells are frozen and given to you after you have high doses of chemo and/or radiation as your myeloablative treatment. Allogeneic transplants use blood from the placenta and umbilical cord of infants. The quantity of stem cells in this tiny amount of cord blood is high, and they grow fast. Adults and children both get cord blood transfusions. Cord blood had been given for public use in an estimated 700,000 units (batches) by 2017. Even more, has been gathered for personal use. In certain studies, the risk of cancer not going away or returning after a cord blood transplant was lower than the chance of cancer returning after a transplant from an unrelated donor. Allogeneic stem cell transplant has several advantages. The donor stem cells produce their own immune cells, which may assist destroy any cancer cells that survive high-dose therapy. The graft-versus-cancer or graft-versus-tumor effect is the name for this phenomenon. Other benefits include the ability to ask the donor for more stem cells or even white blood cells if needed, and the fact that stem cells from healthy donors are cancer-free. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation includes the following risks: The graft, or transplant, might fail – that is, the donor stem cells could perish or be eliminated by the patient’s body before settling in the bone marrow. Another danger is that the donor’s immune cells may not only attack cancer cells, but also healthy cells in the patient’s body. Graft-versus-host disease is the medical term for this. Even if donors are screened before donating, there is a very tiny chance of infection from the donor cells. Infections that you previously experienced and that your immune system was able to handle put you at a higher risk. Because your immune system is held in control (suppressed) by medicines called immunosuppressive agents, several infections may develop following an allogeneic transplant. Infections of this nature can lead to significant complications and even death

Mini-transplants are a type of transplant that is performed on (non-myeloablative transplants).

Some people’s age or health circumstances make myeloablative treatment, which wipes out all of their bone marrow before a transplant, more hazardous. Doctors can utilize a form of allogeneic transplant known as a mini-transplant to help those patients. It may be referred to as a non-myeloablative transplant or reduced-intensity conditioning by your doctor (RIC).Patients who receive a micro transplant receive lesser chemo and/or radiation dosages than those who receive a conventional myeloablative transplant. The objective of the mini-transplant is to eliminate some cancer cells (and therefore some bone marrow) while suppressing the immune system just enough to allow donor stem cells to settle in the bone marrow.Unlike a conventional allogeneic transplant, following a mini-transplant, cells from both the donor and the patient coexist in the recipient’s body for a period of time. However, the donor cells gradually take over the bone marrow and replace the patient’s own bone marrow cells over the course of months. The graft-versus-cancer effect occurs when these new cells establish an immunological response to the disease and help destroy the cancer cells in the patient. A mini-transplant has the benefit of using lesser chemo and/or radiation dosages. Blood cell numbers don’t drop as low while waiting for the new stem cells to start producing regular blood cells since the stem cells aren’t completely destroyed. This makes it especially beneficial for people who are elderly or have other health issues. It may be utilized in individuals who have already received a transplant on a rare occasion. Some illnesses respond better to mini-transplants than others. Patients having a lot of cancer in their bodies or tumors that develop quickly may not respond well to them. Furthermore, while chemo and radiation have fewer adverse effects than a normal allogeneic transplant, the risk of graft-versus-host disease remains the same. Adults and children can have the same types of results with a mini-transplant as they can with a regular transplant for various malignancies and other blood disorders, according to some studies.

Syngeneic stem cell transplants (for those with an identical sibling)

This is a form of allogeneic transplant that can only be utilized if the patient has an identical sibling (twin or triplet) who has the same tissue type as the patient. Graft-versus-host disease will not be a concern with syngeneic stem cell transplantation. Furthermore, unlike an autologous transplant, there are no cancer cells in the transplanted stem cells. One drawback is that there is no graft-versus-cancer impact since the new immune system is so similar to the recipient’s immune system. To assist prevent the disease from returning, every effort must be made to eliminate all cancer cells before the transplant.

Half-matched transplants

The utilisation of family members as donors has improved in recent years. For those who don’t have a fully matching or identical family member, this type of transplant is known as a half-match (haploidentical) transplant. Along with cord blood transplant and matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplant, this is one option to explore.

The significance of patient-donor matching

To avoid graft rejection, it is critical that the donor and recipient have a close tissue match if at all feasible. Graft rejection occurs when the recipient’s immune system detects the donor cells as alien and attempts to eliminate them in the same way that a bacterium or virus would. Graft failure can occur as a result of graft rejection, however, this is uncommon when the donor and recipient are well matched. Another issue is that when donor stem cells produce their own immune cells, the new cells may see the patient’s cells as alien and assault their new “home.” Graft-versus-host disease is the medical term for this. (For further information, see Stem Cell Transplant Side Effects.) The transplanted stem cells assault the individual who received the transplant. Another reason it’s critical to get the closest match possible is because of this.

What factors determine whether or not a stem cell donor is a good match? What does it mean to be an HLA match?

Many variables influence how the immune system distinguishes between self and non-self, but the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is the most essential for transplants. Antigens on the surface of most cells are known as human leukocyte antigens. They determine a person’s tissue type, which differs from his or her blood type. HLA antigens are found in pairs in each person. We receive them from both of our parents and pass them down to our offspring. When looking for a donor for a stem cell transplant, doctors aim to match these antigens. HLA antigens are found in pairs in each person. We receive them from both of our parents and pass them down to our offspring. When looking for a donor for a stem cell transplant, doctors aim to match these antigens. Doctors are always finding new techniques to better match donors. Because siblings’ cells differ less than those of an unrelated donor, fewer testing may be required today. However, more than the basic 6 HLA antigens may be screened to decrease the possibility of mismatched types between unrelated donors. Doctors, for example, will occasionally strive to find a 10 out of 10 match. High-resolution matching, which looks deeper into tissue types and allows for more exact HLA matching, is currently required by several transplant facilities.

Finding a match.

There are dozens of distinct HLA tissue types to choose from. This can make finding an exact match difficult. Both parents’ HLA antigens are passed on to their children. If at all feasible, the search for a donor begins with the patient’s brothers and sisters (siblings) who share the same parents. It’s 1 in 4 that one of your siblings will be a perfect match (meaning you’ll have the same collection of HLA antigens from each of your parents).If a sibling isn’t a suitable match, the search may shift to parents, half siblings, and extended family members including aunts, uncles, and cousins. (Spouses are no more likely than non-related persons to make good mates.) If no close relatives are discovered, the transplant team will broaden their search to include the general population. It is possible to discover a nice fit with a stranger, as improbable as it may appear. The team will use transplant registries, such as those listed above, to aid in this procedure. Patients and volunteer donations are connected through registries. They have access to millions of potential donors as well as hundreds of thousands of cord blood units.


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