Types of Ovarian Cancer
What are the types of Ovarian cancer?
Each type of Ovarian Cancer comprises a specific diagnosis. A cancer tumor initially originates in the epithelial cells. Epithelial cells contribute to the ovary’s outer layer that releases and produces the hormones.
- Ovarian epithelial cancer
Almost every epithelial ovarian tumor is benign (not highly harmful). The most commonly affected is ovarian epithelial carcinoma. About 90% of ovarian cancers are related to ovarian epithelial cysts. These cancers are usually defined by their subtype- endometrioid, mucinous, undifferentiated, and clear cell. Ovarian epithelial cancer frequently originates in the ovary, thereby spreading to the organs and linings of the abdomen and pelvis. Critical stage ovarian epithelial cancer can spread to the liver lungs, bones, brain, and skin. A few of the Ovarian tumors are malignant and occur when irregular tissues grow in the tissue that covers the ovary. These are malignant as these tumors have a minimal chance of developing into cancer. In cases where the tumors grow into cancer, Ovarian Cancer Treatment works well, and cancer does not further spread to other body parts.
- Germ cell tumors
2 percent of cancer types are based on germ cell tumors. Tumors may or may not start developing in the egg-producing cells or germ cells. Germ cell tumors are usually benign. Females are most likely to develop this type of cancer in their 20’s. There are three distinctive types of germ cell tumors.
- Endoderm also Sinus tumor This tumor is the rarest type of Ovarian Cancer and often originates in the placenta. Choriocarcinomas occur during pregnancies and are frequent in the ovaries.
- Dysgerminoma ovarian germ cell cancer This cancer typically occurs rarely but is the most occurring germ cell Ovarian Cancer. Dysgerminomas don’t rapidly spread to other parts of the body but can usually reach the nervous system.
- Teratomas Teratomas are distinctive types of germ cell tumors that originate as cancerous or benign. Cancerous teratomas occur rarely and contain tissues of muscle, hair, and bone.
- Sex cord-stromal tumors
Sex cord tumor or sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor is a rare type that contributes to about 1% of the total ovarian cancers. These tumors originate from the tissue cells of the stroma. These tissues are the chief components that secrete female hormones like progesterone and estrogen. Sex-cord stromal tumors are known to produce an extensive estrogen supply which results in abnormal and irregular vaginal bleeding. Different subtypes of this type of cancer are granulosa cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig tumors, and granulosa-theca tumors.
- Other ovarian cancers
Regardless of the above-mentioned types of ovarian cancer, three types of rarely occurring cancers contribute to about 3% of the total cancers in females.
- Ovarian sarcoma Ovarian sarcoma tumors usually grow in the ovarian cells, specifically the connective tissues. They have 4 subtypes- Angiosarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, carcinosarcomas, and fibrosarcomas.
- Ovarian cysts- Ovarian cysts grow inside the ovary and are filled with fluid sacs. These frequently occur during ovulation and don’t require treatment. These cysts rarely develop into cancer and usually go away on their own.
- Krukenberg tumors- Kruckenberg tumors are types that reach the ovaries from external organs like the gastrointestinal tract. This cancer type isn’t very critical and can be treated with basic methodologies.
- Recurrent Ovarian Cancer
Recurrent Ovarian Cancer develops when malignant cells start reappearing after curing cancer. Recurrent Ovarian Cancer isn’t staged and can occur after days or months after the Cancer Treatment. Moreover, it can return to the original or any other location. Ovarian Cancer frequently reoccurs when a limited number of cancer cells survive Cancer Treatment. These cancer cells usually survive the Surgery or Chemotherapy processes and tend to multiply after recurrence. This can occur anytime after the treatment and is not easy to detect. Every patient encounters different symptoms and the typical locations where recurrent Ovarian Cancer occurs are the pelvis and abdomen, intestines, near the bladder, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal tract.