Saturday, February 4, 2023

Colorectal Cancer

Types of Colorectal Cancer

What are the types of Colorectal Cancer?

1. Colorectal adenocarcinoma

The prefix “adeno” in adenocarcinoma means glands, and “carcinoma” indicates a type of cancer that affects the epithelial cells along the body’s surface, either inside or outside, or both. Adenocarcinoma of Colorectal Cancer occurs and spreads along the walls of the large intestine. Their growth often starts from the inner wall and gradually, they spread to other layers of the large intestine.

Adenocarcinoma has two subtypes, diagnosed less commonly.

Mucinous adenocarcinoma: Mucinous adenocarcinoma is composed of almost 60% mucus. The mucus may cause the cancer cells to spread on a wider scale at a faster rate, making mucinous adenocarcinoma more aggressive compared to typical adenocarcinomas.

Signet ring cell adenocarcinoma: Signet ring cell adenocarcinoma got its name from its appearance as seen through a microscope. This subtype is considered to be typically aggressive and is the hardest kind of Colorectal Cancer to treat.

Symptoms of colorectal adenocarcinoma

  • A recurring change in bowel movements, such as persisting Diarrhea or constipation, or a frequent change in the consistency of your stool
  • Blood in the stool
  • A bleeding rectum
  • Non-stop discomfort in the abdomen, such as gas, cramps, or Pain Fatigue or weakness
  • Inexplicable weight loss

2. Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors

Carcinoid tumors are a type of neuroendocrine tumors that form in neuroendocrine cells, the primary function of which is to aid the regulation of hormone production. These tumors have a slow growth rate and account for 1% of all types of Colorectal Cancer. Symptoms of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors Pain in the abdomen Diarrhea Persisting nausea, vomiting, and bowel obstruction (the inability to pass waste or stool due to blockage in the intestines) Rectal Pain Rectal bleeding Flushed skin

3. Primary colorectal lymphomas

Primary colorectal Lymphoma belongs to the category of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which occurs in the lymphocytes of the lymphatic system. Lymphoma can develop in numerous parts of the body, such as the bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, the digestive tract, and the spleen. This type of Lymphoma accounts for 0.5% of all types of Colorectal Cancer. This Colorectal Cancer type is mostly known to occur in older men than women.

Symptoms of primary colorectal lymphomas

  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Inexplicable weight loss

4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

GISTs or gastrointestinal stromal tumors are one of the rare Colorectal Cancer types that develop in the ICCs (the interstitial cells of Cajal) or the walls of the gastrointestinal tract. More than 50% of GISTs have a chance of occurring in the stomach while the rest of it can develop in the small intestine and the rectum. Also known as sarcomas, GISTs form and mature in the connective tissues, such as blood vessels, fat tissues, nerves, cartilage, and bones.

Symptoms of gastrointestinal stromal tumors

  • Bloody stool Abdominal pain
  • Persisting Nausea and Vomiting Bowel obstruction
  • Abdomen bloating Fatigue and weakness
  • Feeling of fullness Difficulty or Pain while swallowing food

5. Leiomyosarcomas

Leiomyosarcoma is another type of sarcoma, it’s “cancer of the smooth muscle”. The rectum and the colon have three layers of the muscle type that functions in guiding waste out the digestive tract. Since it accounts for only about 0.1% of all cases of colorectal cancer, leiomyosarcoma is considered as one of the rare Colorectal Cancer types.

Symptoms of leiomyosarcoma

  • A bloated abdomen
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • A nodule beneath the skin
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Pain
  • Inexplicable weight loss

6. Melanomas

Melanoma is one of the common cancer types that can occur anywhere on the body such as rectum or colon, even though it is mostly known to develop in association with Skin Cancer.

Symptoms of Melanoma

  • Abdominal pain
  • Bowel obstruction
  • Anemia Bleeding
  • Inexplicable weight loss
  • Growth of primary lesion