Blood Cancer

Types of Blood Cancer

What are the types of Blood Cancer?

1.Leukemia

Leukemia is caused by the abnormal production of blood cells in the bone marrow of the body. In leukemia, white blood cells multiply abnormally and are unable to fight infections, harmful bacterias, and viruses entering the body. The large-scale production of white blood cells also hinders the production of red blood cells and Platelets. There are four main types of Leukemia :

  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL): As it is acute, it develops rapidly and needs immediate medical treatment. In acute lymphocytic leukemia, white blood cells develop in a large amount and crowd the healthy white blood cells, making the body helpless against external infections. One can have ALL if they have a sibling who has ALL, have been exposed to radiation, undergone Chemotherapy in the past for treatment of any other cancer or have a genetic disorder. This kind of Blood Cancer mostly occurs in children of the age group between 3-10 years.
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): In the process of the development of stem cells into blood cells in the bone marrow, it first develops into myeloid cells. If one has Acute Myeloid Leukemia, their myeloid cells don’t mature into blood cells and remain as young cells called myeloblasts. These myeloblasts clog the bone marrow, hence refrain other cells from performing their functions as well.It mainly occurs in people who are in their 20’s. One can have AML if they have gone through chemotherapy, have a genetic disorder, or have been in contact with any toxic carcinogenic material.
  • Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): The word chronic means the cancer symptoms are not immediate and show after a long period. This occurs when two completely separate genes fuse and accelerate the growth of abnormal cells. These abnormal cells, called granulocytes, are the cells that form when the stem cells are still developing into white blood cells. These cells adversely affect the bone marrow, hence stop the growth of normal cells in the body. One is more likely to get it if exposed to radiation, and this kind of Blood Cancer is usually found in adults.
  •  Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This is the most common type of Leukemia in adults. It develops slowly, and the symptoms are visible years after the Blood Cancer starts in the body. When stem cells are developing into white blood cells, also known as lymphocytes, they undergo a stage when they are in the form of immature lymphoblasts. CLL occurs when these lymphoblasts develop too quickly and are unable to work properly. They also accumulate and clog the bone marrow, stopping normal blood cells from functioning as well.If someone has a family history of Blood Cancer or has had prolonged exposure to toxic chemicals, they can have CLL.

2.Lymphoma

Your lymph system is made up of lymph nodes, spleen, throat, thymus, and lymphatic tissue found in the small intestine. It has the primary function of moving the white blood cells to and from the lymph nodes. Cancer in the lymphatic system is called Lymphoma. In lymphoma, your body produces large amounts of lymphocytes or white blood cells. These lymphocytes also live longer than they should. They weaken the immune system of the body as well as stop other blood cells from doing their functions. Lymphoma is categorized into two types. Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: This kind of Lymphoma starts in B-cells that are responsible for forming antibodies for the body and can be identified by the presence of large lymphocytes at the lymph nodes, known as Reed-Sternberg. Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: This kind of Blood Cancer is observed in T-cells of the body and is more common than Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

3.Myeloma

Myeloma is a type of Blood Cancer that affects the white blood cells that make antibodies called plasma cells. This Blood Cancer can be found in various parts of bone marrow. It occurs when B-cells do not develop into plasma cells, and these immature cells are produced rapidly. They produce antibodies that cannot ward off the body from infections and hinder the function of other normal cells as well. It also leads to the production of toxins that weaken the bones, causing thinning and weakening. This results in Pain in the body and, in some cases, fracture. One can have this kind of Blood Cancer if they are obese, have a family history of myeloma, or have had prolonged exposure to radiation.