Types of Biopsies in cancer diagnosis
Excisional Biopsy and Incisional Biopsy
The procedure is called an excisional Biopsy when the entire tumor is extracted. If only a part of the tumor is removed, it is called an incisional Biopsy. Excisional Biopsy is widely used for suspicious alterations on the skin. Doctors also often use it for tiny, easy to remove lumps under the skin. However, fine-needle aspiration or core needle Biopsy is more popular for lumps that can not be seen or felt through the skin.
Endoscopic Biopsy Endoscopic biopsies are used to gather samples from places like the bladder, colon, or lung to reach tissue inside the body. The doctor uses a flexible thin-tube called an endoscope during this operation. The endoscope has a small camera at the end, a lamp. A video monitor lets your physician access the pictures. They also insert small surgical instruments into the endoscope. Your doctor will use the video to direct these to collect a sample. The endoscope may be inserted into your body through a small incision, or any opening in the body, including the mouth, nose, rectum, or urethra. Endoscopies usually take 5 to 20 minutes. This may be done in a hospital or at a doctor’s office. You may feel mildly uncomfortable afterward, or you may have bloating gas or a sore throat. These will all fade in time but you can contact your doctor if you are worried.
Needle biopsies are used to extract tissue samples that are easily accessible under the skin. The different types of needle biopsies are:
- Core needle biopsies use a medium-sized needle to extract a column of tissue in a cylindrical shape.
- Fine needle biopsies use a thin needle allowing fluids and cells to be extracted.
- Image-guided biopsies are directed with imaging procedures, such as X-Ray or CT scans, This is used to access specific areas, such as the lung, liver, or other organs.
- Vacuum-assisted biopsies use suction from a vacuum to extract the suspicious cells.
If you have a rash or lesion on your skin that is suspicious, your doctor may perform a Biopsy of the involved area of the skin. This can be done by using local anesthesia and cutting a small piece of tissue with a razor blade, a scalpel, or a thin, circular blade called a “punch.” The sample will be sent to the laboratory to examine for signs of conditions such as infection, cancer, and inflammation of skin structures or blood vessels.
Bone marrow biopsy
Blood cells are produced in a spongy material called marrow, inside some of your larger bones, like the hip or the femur in your leg. When your doctor thinks you have blood disorders, you can undergo a Biopsy of the bone marrow. This test may identify cancerous and non-cancerous conditions such as leukemia, anemia, infection, or Lymphoma. The test is also used to determine if cancer cells from other body parts have spread to your bones. The easiest access to the bone marrow is by a long needle inserted into the hipbone. It can be done in a doctor’s office or a hospital. There’s no way to numb the insides of the bones, and some people experience a dull discomfort during this operation. However, some only feel initial acute Pain when the local anesthesia is administered.