Tuesday, September 27, 2022

Colorectal Cancer

Stages And Treatment

Colorectal cancer stages and treatment

The large intestine is composed of two main components, i.e., colon and rectum. The intestinal wall consists of several layers, such as mucosa, submucosa, and the serosa. The Colorectal Cancer staging is done based on the extent to which the cancerous cells have spread through the various layers of the rectum or colon.

Stage 0

Abnormal growth of cells, or polyps are found in the inner lining of the colon or rectum, called the mucosa. The abnormal growths are termed as carcinoma in situ, as the polyps are confined to their place of growth. Cells discovered in this stage may be cancerous or precancerous.

What are the symptoms and signs of Colorectal Cancer stage 0?

Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer stage 0 include rectal bleeding, a change in bowel movements, fatigue, abdominal pain, and inexplicable weight loss.

Surgery is often the only method of treatment followed for Colorectal Cancer treatment, stage 0. A polypectomy performed during colonoscopy can remove all cancerous growths and polyps. Rare, but cited side effects of a polypectomy include bleeding from the site where the polyp was present and perforation of the colon.

Can you survive Colorectal Cancer stage 0?

The five-year survival rate of Colorectal Cancer stage 0 is 89.8%.

Stage 1

Stage 1 colorectal cancers have penetrated the submucosa from the mucosa, without spreading to the lymph nodes.

What are the symptoms and signs of Colorectal Cancer stage 1?

Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer stage 1 include diarrhea, constipation, alternating constipation and diarrhea, abdominal bloating, rectal bleeding, excreting stools thinner than normal, and a sensation that the bowel hasn’t emptied.

The standard treatment for this stage is Surgery. The affected section of the colon may be removed by partial colectomy. General complications of colectomy include bleeding, blood clots in the lungs and legs, torn sutures that reconnect other parts of the digestive system, infection, injury to bladder or small intestines.

What is the survival rate of Colorectal Cancer stage 1?

The survival rate of Colorectal Cancer stage 1 is 80-95%.

Stage 2

Stage 2 Colorectal Cancer is more advanced than stage 1 and has penetrated the submucosa of the colon.

Stage 2 is further classified into:

2A Stage

Colorectal cancer has not advanced to the nearby lymph nodes or tissues. It has spread to the outer layers of the colon but hasn’t completely grown through.

2B Stage

In this stage, the Colorectal Cancer cells have not affected the lymph nodes yet, but have grown through the serosa, i.e., the outer layer of the colon, toward the visceral peritoneum, which holds the abdominal organs together.

2C Stage

Lymph nodes show no presence of Colorectal Cancer cells, but they have advanced to nearby structures or organs.

What are the symptoms and signs of Colorectal Cancer stage 2?

Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer stage 2 include a change in the frequency of bowel movements, constipation, changed consistency of stool, bloody stools, abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, and a sensation that the bowel hasn’t emptied.

A partial colectomy is the suggested mode of treatment.

Can you survive Colorectal Cancer stage 2?

The stage 2 Colorectal Cancer survival rate is 55-80%.

Stage 3

Stage 3 Colorectal Cancer is classified into:

3A Stage: The tumor has penetrated the colon’s muscular layers and has invaded the nearby lymph nodes. It hasn’t advanced to distant organs or nodes.

3B Stage: The tumor has infiltrated the outer layers of the colon, the visceral peritoneum, and affected one to three lymph nodes.

3C Stage: Colorectal Cancer cells have affected four or more lymph nodes.

The symptoms experienced are the same as that of Colorectal Cancer stage 2.

Suggested Colorectal Cancer treatments for stage 3 include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery, although their order may differ from person to person.

Can you survive Colorectal Cancer stage 3?

Colorectal cancer stage 3 has about a 40% chance of a successful cure.

Stage 4

Stage 4 is metastatic colorectal cancer, which is classified into:

4A Stage: The tumors have penetrated one distant site, either the lungs or liver.

4B Stage: The tumors have penetrated two or more distant sites such as both the lungs and the liver.

What are the symptoms and signs of Colorectal Cancer stage 4?

Symptoms of metastatic Colorectal Cancer are fatigue, pain, abdominal bloating, Pain in the right side of the stomach or abdomen, jaundice, itching, appetite loss, weight loss, leg pain, and bloody stools. Just as in stage 3, metastatic Colorectal Cancer treatments include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery, to remove the affected lymph nodes and other areas. Chemo is given before or after the Surgery.

Can you survive Colorectal Cancer stage 4?

Colorectal cancer stage 4 has about a 10% chance of a successful cure.