Tuesday, June 28, 2022

Causes of Cancer


  1. Parkin DM, Boyd L, Walker LC. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer. 2011 Dec 6;105:S77-81.
  2. Olsen JH, Andersen A, Dreyer L, Pukkala E, Tryggvadottir L, Gerhardsson de Verdier M, et al. Summary of avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. APMIS Suppl. 1997;76:141-6.
  3. Doll R, Peto R. The causes of cancer: quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1981 Jun;66(6):1191-308.
  4. Hakulinen T, Pukkala E. Vaihtoehtoisten tupakointimuutosten vaikutus miesten keuhkosyöpäsairastuvuuteen Suomessa 2000-luvulle siirryttäessä. Lääket Aik. 1980(17):223-33.
  5. Lee PN, Forey BA, Coombs KJ. Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in the 1900s relating smoking to Lung Cancer. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:385.
  6. Xue F, Willett WC, Rosner BA, Hankinson SE, Michels KB. Cigarette smoking and the incidence of Breast Cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Jan 24;171(2):125-33.
  7. Luo J, Ye W, Zendehdel K, Adami J, Adami H-O, Boffetta P, et al. Oral use of Swedish moist snuff (snus) and risk for cancer of the mouth, lung, and pancreas in male construction workers: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Lond Engl. 2007 Jun 16;369(9578):2015-20.
  8. Roosaar A, Johansson ALV, Sandborgh-Englund G, Axéll T, Nyrén O. Cancer and mortality among users and nonusers of snus. Int J Cancer J Int Cancer. 2008 Jul 1;123(1):168-73.
  9. Zendehdel K, Nyrén O, Luo J, Dickman PW, Boffetta P, Englund A, et al. risk of gastroesophageal cancer among smokers and users of Scandinavian moist snuff. Int J Cancer J Int Cancer. 2008 Mar 1;122(5):1095-9.
  10. Lindqvist C. Risk factors in lip cancer – an epidemiological study. Proc Finn Dent Soc Suom Hammaslääkäriseuran Edit. 1979;75 Suppl 1-2:1-43.
  11. Baan R, Straif K, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, et al. Carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages. Lancet Oncol. 2007 Apr;8(4):292-3.
  12. Bingham SA, Day NE, Luben R, Ferrari P, Slimani N, Norat T, et al. Dietary fibre in food and protection against Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study. Lancet Lond Engl. 2003 May 3;361(9368):1496-501.
  13. Bouvard V, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y, Ghissassi FE, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, et al. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. Lancet Oncol. 2015 Dec;16(16):1599-600.
  14. The effect of Vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of Lung Cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1994 Apr 14;330(15):1029-35.
  15. Latikka P, Pukkala E, Vihko V. Relationship between the risk of Breast Cancer and physical activity. An epidemiological perspective. Sports Med Auckl NZ. 1998 Sep;26(3):133-43.
  16. Högnäs E, Kauppila A, Hinkula M, Tapanainen JS, Pukkala E. Incidence of cancer among grand multiparous women in Finland with special focus on non-gynaecological cancers: A population-based cohort study. Acta Oncol Stockh Swed. 2016 Mar;55(3):370-6.
  17. Jaakkola S, Lyytinen H, Pukkala E, Ylikorkala O. Endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women using estradiol-progestin therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Dec;114(6):1197-204.
  18. Lyytinen HK, Dyba T, Ylikorkala O, Pukkala EI. A case-control study on Hormone therapy as a risk factor for Breast Cancer in Finland: Intrauterine system carries a risk as well. Int J Cancer J Int Cancer. 2010 Jan 15;126(2):483-9.
  19. Koskela-Niska V, Lyytinen H, Riska A, Pukkala E, Ylikorkala O. Ovarian Cancer risk in postmenopausal women using estradiol-progestin therapy – a nationwide study. Climacteric J Int Menopause Soc. 2013 Feb;16(1):48-53.
  20. Heikkinen S, Koskenvuo M, Malila N, Sarkeala T, Pukkala E, Pitkäniemi J. Use of exogenous hormones and the risk of breast cancer: results from self-reported survey data with validity assessment. Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Feb;27(2):249-58.
  21. Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. Public Health Rep Wash DC 1974. 2005 Feb;120(1):31-8.
  22. Turati F, Pelucchi C, Galeone C, Decarli A, La Vecchia C. Personal hair dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Ann Epidemiol. 2014 Feb;24(2):151-9.
  23. Heikkinen S, Pitkäniemi J, Sarkeala T, Malila N, Koskenvuo M. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women. PloS One. 2015;10(8):e0135190.
  24. Takkouche B, Etminan M, Montes-Martínez A. Personal use of hair dyes and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2005 May 25;293(20):2516-25.
  25. Lehtinen M, Dillner J, Knekt P, Luostarinen T, Aromaa A, Kirnbauer R, et al. Serologically diagnosed infection with human papillomavirus type 16 and risk for subsequent development of cervical carcinoma: nested case-control study. BMJ. 1996 Mar 2;312(7030):537-9.
  26. Mork J, Lie AK, Glattre E, Hallmans G, Jellum E, Koskela P, et al. Human papillomavirus infection as a risk factor for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med. 2001 Apr 12;344(15):1125-31.
  27. Lehtinen M, Herrero R, Mayaud P, Barnabas R, Dillner J, Paavonen J, et al. Chapter 28: Studies to assess the long-term efficacy and effectiveness of HPV vaccination in developed and developing countries. Vaccine. 2006 Aug 31;24 Suppl 3:S3/233-41.
  28. Rehnberg-Laiho L, Rautelin H, Koskela P, Sarna S, Pukkala E, Aromaa A, et al. Decreasing prevalence of helicobacter antibodies in Finland, with reference to the decreasing incidence of gastric cancer. Epidemiol Infect. 2001 Feb;126(1):37-42.
  29. Chang M-H. Hepatitis B virus and cancer prevention. Recent Results Cancer Res Fortschritte Krebsforsch Prog Dans Rech Sur Cancer. 2011;188:75-84.
  30. World Health Organization, editor. Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2009. 62 p.
  31. Straif K, Baan R, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, et al. Carcinogenicity of shift-work, painting, and fire-fighting. Lancet Oncol. 2007 Dec;8(12):1065-6.
  32. Salonen R, Pasanen K, Pulkkinen A-M, Pennanen A, Sokura M, Pärjälä E, et al. Puun pienpolton savut. Uutta tietoa altistumisesta ja terveyshaitoista. Ympäristö ja Terveys. 2015(46):4-11.
  33. Koivusalo M, Pukkala E, Vartiainen T, Jaakkola JJ, Hakulinen T. Drinking water chlorination and cancer-a historical cohort study in Finland. Cancer Causes Control CCC. 1997 Mar;8(2):192-200.
  34. Kurttio P, Pukkala E, Kahelin H, Auvinen A, Pekkanen J. Arsenic concentrations in well water and risk of bladder and kidney cancer in Finland. Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Sep;107(9):705-10.
  35. Pukkala E, Pönkä A. Increased incidence of cancer and asthma in houses built on a former dump area. Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Nov;109(11):1121-5.
  36. Pukkala E. A follow-up of cancer incidence among former Finnish dump site residents: 1999-2011. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2014 Oct;20(4):313-7.
  37. Mäkeläinen, I. Kuka saa syövän radonista? Ympäristö ja terveys. 2010(3):60-3.
  38. Travis LB, Andersson M, Gospodarowicz M, van Leeuwen FE, Bergfeldt K, Lynch CF, et al. Treatment-associated Leukemia following testicular cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Jul 19;92(14):1165-71.
  39. Worrillow LJ, Travis LB, Smith AG, Rollinson S, Smith AJ, Wild CP, et al. An intron splice acceptor polymorphism in hMSH2 and risk of Leukemia after treatment with chemotherapeutic alkylating agents. Clin Cancer Res Off J Am Assoc Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 1;9(8):3012-20.
  40. Virtanen A, Pukkala E, Auvinen A. Angiosarcoma after radiotherapy: a cohort study of 332,163 Finnish cancer patients. Br J Cancer. 2007 Jul 2;97(1):115-7.
  41. Virtanen A, Pukkala E, Auvinen A. Incidence of bone and soft tissue sarcoma after radiotherapy: a cohort study of 295,712 Finnish cancer patients. Int J Cancer J Int Cancer. 2006 Feb 15;118(4):1017-21.
  42. Hill DA, Gilbert E, Dores GM, Gospodarowicz M, van Leeuwen FE, Holowaty E, et al. Breast Cancer risk following Radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma: modification by other risk factors. Blood. 2005 Nov 15;106(10):3358-65.
  43. Salminen EK, Pukkala E, Kiel KD, Hakulinen TT. Impact of Radiotherapy in the risk of esophageal cancer as subsequent primary cancer after Breast Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006 Jul 1;65(3):699-704.
  44. Verkasalo PK, Pukkala E, Hongisto MY, Valjus JE, Järvinen PJ, Heikkilä KV, et al. Risk of cancer in Finnish children living close to power lines. BMJ. 1993 Oct 9;307(6909):895-9.
  45. Verkasalo PK, Pukkala E, Kaprio J, Heikkilä KV, Koskenvuo M. Magnetic fields of high voltage power lines and risk of cancer in Finnish adults: nationwide cohort study. BMJ. 1996 Oct 26;313(7064):1047-51.
  46. Pukkala E, Martinsen JI, Lynge E, Gunnarsdottir HK, Sparén P, Tryggvadottir L, et al. Occupation and cancer – follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries. Acta Oncol Stockh Swed. 2009;48(5):646-790.