Risk factors of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

The risk factors involve the most prone activities capable of increasing the chances of cancer. Risk factors are mainly considered influential towards cancer development as some of the risk factors are not directly responsible for causing cancer. Some individuals with several risk factors do not tend to develop cancer, while others with no known risk factors are prone to develop cancer. Hence, seeking appropriate information regarding the related risk factors for improving the lifestyle and making good healthcare choices. Following are some of the significant risk factors that led towards the adherence of developing lung cancer among the individuals:

  • Cigarette smoking: The epidemic of lung cancer has evolved from the habitual lifestyle of individuals prone to cigarette smoking. The prevalence of tobacco has affected the lives of many individuals ​1​. Smoking habits among individuals damages lung cells, resulting in abnormal cell growth. The significant health risks are caused to more prone to smoking habits. Also, the exposure to constant smoke even evolved from other cigarettes, have tended to cause increased health risk to cancer, although the individual does not possess any smoking habit ​2​
  • Air pollution: Exposure to air pollution involves the exposure to various harmful emissions such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, oxidative stress, inflammation, induction of a pro-coagulatory state, and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Exposure to outdoor air pollution has been the leading cause of cancer. The other source of air pollution exposure includes transportation and industrial fumes, power generation, and smoke from intentional burning and wildfires. The individuals showing a history of smoking habits show a higher risk of lung cancer ​3​. Hence, the exposure to air pollution can be checked for the specific region while avoiding the adoption of outdoor activities due to higher levels ​4​.
  • Occupational exposure: Many individuals are more prone to exposure to carcinogens, increasing the risk of lung cancer. The most common carcinogens include crystalline silica and chrysotile asbestos. These common carcinogens are responsible for exposing individuals to silica dust and asbestos fibre, which tend to cause a significant risk of cancer development. The individuals working in uranium miners and nuclear plants show an increased risk of lung cancer exposure to radioactive particulate mass ​5​
  • Genes: Some individuals tend to show a genetic predisposition for adherence to lung cancer. Although several individuals have been found to have no smoking habits in their entire life cycle, still individuals with one of their parents’ siblings who have been suffering from lung cancer tend to show a higher risk towards the development of lung cancer due to mutational changes within their genes which are genetic ​6​. The significant risk of developing lung cancer is evolved from the carriers of mutated copies of the affected gene from the cancer patient. The genes have made individuals more vulnerable to cancer ​7​
  • Radon exposure: The occurrence of the radon within the environment is possible due to the natural decay of uranium in the soil, which later enters the houses through cracks in the foundation, sump pumps, wires and becomes trapped ​8​. This gas is invisible and odorless, released from the soil and rocks. The hardware stores consist of testing kits for testing the radon exposure within the homes, and the basements are equipped with proper ventilation for decreasing the level of radon exposure ​9​

Other related risk factors lead to the development of lung cancer among the individuals being enlisted below:

  • Age: The higher age group of individuals are more prone to cancer development when compared with the individuals within the median age of diagnosis being 71 years old ​10​ . The adherence to lung cancer is mainly found among younger adults and less commonly found among children. 
  • Ionizing radiations: Exposure to ionizing radiation is considered the significant risk factor for developing non-small lung cancer cells. The radiation therapy provided to the patients during cancer treatment tends to increase the risk among those individuals who have adhered to the radiation for Hodgkin’s disease ​11​. The protocol of mastectomy evolves, and radiation therapy tends to increase the risk of lung cancer.
  • Medication conditions: Several medications such as immunosuppression in HIV/AIDS and organ transplant recipients, drugs of rheumatoid arthritis, use of ACE inhibitors show a higher risk of lung cancer (Aerts et al., 2014).
  • Diet and exercise: Dietary intake is concerned with the increased or decreased risk of cancer. Arsenic in the drinking water has shown an increased risk of lung cancer. The information of dietary supplements with a significant concentration of beta-carotene has increased the risk of the development of lung cancer ​12​. The lack of physical activities tends to increase the risk of converting non-small cell lung cancer to a small degree with the integration of regular exercises that may reduce the risk of lung cancer.

References

  1. 1.
    Shaper A, Wannamethee S, Walker M. Pipe and cigar smoking and major cardiovascular events, cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in middle-aged British men. International Journal of Epidemiology. Published online October 2003:802-808. doi:10.1093/ije/dyg206
  2. 2.
    Henley SJ, Thun MJ, Chao A, Calle EE. Association Between Exclusive Pipe Smoking and Mortality From Cancer and Other Diseases. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Published online June 1, 2004:853-861. doi:10.1093/jnci/djh144
  3. 3.
    Xue Y, Jiang Y, Jin S, Li Y. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis. OTT. Published online May 2016:2987. doi:10.2147/ott.s100949
  4. 4.
    Lamichhane DK, Kim HC, Choi CM, et al. Lung Cancer Risk and Residential Exposure to Air Pollution: A Korean Population-Based Case-Control Study. Yonsei Med J. Published online 2017:1111. doi:10.3349/ymj.2017.58.6.1111
  5. 5.
    Boffetta P. Epidemiology of environmental and occupational cancer. Oncogene. Published online August 2004:6392-6403. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207715
  6. 6.
    Kanwal M, Ding XJ, Cao Y. Familial risk for lung cancer. Oncology Letters. Published online December 20, 2016:535-542. doi:10.3892/ol.2016.5518
  7. 7.
    Jonsson S. Familial Risk of Lung Carcinoma in the Icelandic Population. JAMA. Published online December 22, 2004:2977. doi:10.1001/jama.292.24.2977
  8. 8.
    Vogeltanz-Holm N, Schwartz GG. Radon and lung cancer: What does the public really know? Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. Published online December 2018:26-31. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2018.05.017
  9. 9.
    Lantz PM, Mendez D, Philbert MA. Radon, Smoking, and Lung Cancer: The Need to Refocus Radon Control Policy. Am J Public Health. Published online March 2013:443-447. doi:10.2105/ajph.2012.300926
  10. 10.
    Takayuki N, Keiko T, Junji U, et al. Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Elderly Patients: Patient Features and Therapeutic Management. BioMed Research International. Published online 2018:1-8. doi:10.1155/2018/8202971
  11. 11.
    Gilbert ES. Ionising radiation and cancer risks: What have we learned from epidemiology? International Journal of Radiation Biology. Published online January 2009:467-482. doi:10.1080/09553000902883836
  12. 12.
    Tanvetyanon T, Bepler G. Beta‐carotene in multivitamins and the possible risk of lung cancer among smokers versus former smokers. Cancer. Published online July 1, 2008:150-157. doi:10.1002/cncr.23527