Staging describes where the tumor is located, if it is malignant, whether or not the tumor has matured and spread, and whether it is affecting other sections of the body. Doctors utilise diagnostic tests to determine the cancer stage; therefore, staging may not be complete until all the tests are complete. Knowing the stage assists the doctor in choosing the best course of treatment and can help estimate a patient’s prognosis or the possibility of recovery. Distinct forms of tumors have different stages of description.
Following the diagnosis of meningioma, doctors perform additional tests to understand more about the tumor. People with neurofibromatosis type 2 are more likely to have more than one meningioma, as indicated in risk factors. In this case, a patient will undergo a battery of tests, including an MRI, to determine whether or not the tumor has spread throughout the brain and the spine.
There is no systematic way of directing an approach for the disease as one cannot stage the brain and spinal chord cancers the same way as tumors. Doctors utilise the six parameters listed below to assess treatment options and prognosis for meningioma.
Tumor histology and grade –
Doctors remove a tumour sample for analysis, as indicated in diagnosis. Tumor histology comprises the type of tumor, quality, and other molecular markers that predict how quickly cancer will mature and grow. These criteria, when considered together, will assist your doctor in determining how the tumor will behave. These factors may also play a role in determining a person’s treatment options.
The term grade refers to a particular aspect of the tumour associated with specific outcomes. Doctors may assess whether the tumor cells are growing out of control or whether there are a lot of dead cells, for example. Tumors whose characteristics are of faster growth are of a higher grade. The lower the grade of the most malignancies, the better the prognosis.
3 Grades of meningioma
- A tumor of grade I grow slowly.
- A grade II tumor grows more quickly. In other words, an atypical meningioma.
- A grade III tumor develops and spreads rapidly. In other words, an anaplastic or malignant meningioma.
- The age at which a person is diagnosed with meningioma is one of the best indicators of prognosis in adults. In general, the better the prognosis, the younger the adult.
A doctor removes a tumour using resection surgery. The term “residual” refers to the amount of tumour that persists in the body following surgery. When all of the tumour can be surgically removed, the patient’s prognosis improves. Its three categories are:
Total cost. The tumour was excised entirely, albeit microscopic cells may have remained.
Subtotal. Dctor removes the tumour in large chunks.
Doctor will perform a biopsy. However, he or she will only take a small amount for a biopsy.
The location of the tumour. Tumors can develop in any area of the central nervous system. Some parts of the body are more vulnerable to tumours than others. Because of their location, certain tumours are more difficult to remove totally than others.
Status of neurologic function:
The doctor will use the Karnofsky Performance Scale to examine how effectively a patient’s CNS functions. A higher score indicates a better prognosis—the spread of metastatic disease. Meningioma spreads to other sections of the body relatively seldom.
Sometimes, even after treating, a recurrent tumour returns. In this case, the doctors perform more tests to determine the extent of the recurrence.
Markers of cancer
The criteria listed above are the most reliable indicators of a meningioma patient’s prognosis. Researchers are now seeking tumour markers to help diagnose meningioma and allow adult CNS cancers to be staged. Tumor markers are molecules discovered in higher-than-normal concentrations in the blood, urine, or body tissues of patients with certain types of tumours. These techniques could one day help doctors forecast how rapidly a brain tumour will grow and spread, devise more effective treatments, and predict prognosis more accurately.