A Tumor develops when healthy cells alter and grow uncontrollably, generating a mass or a lump. A tumor might be malignant or non-cancerous. A cancerous tumor, in general, is malignant, which means it can spread or grow into other sections or parts of the body. A benign tumor can grow but does not generally spread. This guide is about meningioma. It is a slow-growing tumor that grows on the brain’s surface. It can produce severe symptoms if it expands and presses on the brain or spinal cord. Meningioma begins in the meningeal tissues, which are thin membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater are the three meningeal layers.
Doctors assume arachnoidal cells in the central nervous system, also known as CNS to be the cause of Meningioma. It accounts for roughly 30% of all brain cancers.
Most meningiomas are low-grade benign brain tumors such as fibroblastic meningioma and meningothelial meningioma classified as grade I by the World Health Organization and who have a good prognosis following surgery. Around 20% of meningiomas are high-grade malignant brain tumors that fall into the WHO Grade II, atypical meningioma or WHO grade III categories such as anaplastic meningioma. Malignant meningiomas are more aggressive and can sometimes mature and develop from benign meningiomas. They have a higher risk of recurrence following surgery and a higher mortality rate. Currently, the predominant treatment option for malignant meningiomas is a surgical excision along with adjuvant radiotherapy. However, the researchers have not developed any other effective targeted chemotherapies.
Medical practitioners are working day and night to understand more about meningiomas, how to treat them, how to avoid them, and how to care for patients diagnosed with them. Clinical trials may also provide new alternatives for patients in the following research areas. It is crucial to consult a medical practitioner to determine the patient’s best diagnostic and treatment options.
Treatments and care
Hormonal Supplements: Latest research’s talk about the possible interconnection between meningioma and hormone levels. There have been new developments in therapies. Clinical trials are underway for more new therapies that target the proteins that tumors unitise to mature and grow. Among these treatments are the following.
Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy strengthens the body’s natural defences to combat the tumor. It employs the body or laboratory components to enhance, target, or restore immune system activity.
Targeted Therapy: Drugs that disrupt the immune system and disrupt various activities within tumor cells, such as those that aid in cell division. Some of these are directed towards specific targets or pathways that may be distinct or improperly regulated compared to healthy cells. These treatments are known as targeted therapy. Researchers are conducting several research and experiments to investigate this therapeutic method.
Anti-angiogenesis therapy aims to halt angiogenesis or form new blood vessels. Because tumors require the nutrients given by blood vessels to develop and spread, the anti-angiogenesis medicines aim to starve the tumor. Targeted therapy, or in other words, anti angiogenesis therapy.
Gene therapy aims to fix defective genes that contribute to tumor growth. For Malignant meningioma, electric fields are directed with a portable device called the NovoTFF-100A (Optune).
Supportive Care/Palliative care – Clinical trials are under conducted to investigate new ways to reduce symptoms and adverse effects of current meningioma treatments to improve patients’ comfort and quality of life.