Head and neck cancer is different types of cancerous growth that develop in the head and neck region. However, other head and neck cancers depend upon the body parts where they occur. The different head and neck cancer types include oropharyngeal cancer, hypopharyngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, oral cavity and lip cancer, nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer, salivary gland cancer, squamous neck cancer, thyroid cancer, and soft tissue sarcoma.
Types of Head and Neck Cancer
Head and neck cancer is different types of cancerous growth that develop in the head and neck region. These cancers can begin in the mouth, throat, tongue, larynx, pharynx, salivary glands, nose or sinuses. Men are more likely to develop these cancers than women. The main factors that increase the risk of head and neck cancers are alcohol consumption and tobacco use.
Types of Head and Neck cancer
The following are types of head and neck cancers 1. Each type is named as per the part of the body where they occur.
- Experts identify the cancerous cells in the tissues of the oropharynx – the central region of the throat (also known as the pharynx) – in this disease. The soft palate/back of the mouth, the base of the tongue, and the tonsils are all included. The oropharynx consists of the middle part of the throat, from the tonsils to the voice box. The pharynx is a 5-inch-long hollow tube that starts behind the nose (nasopharynx) and travels down the neck (hypopharynx) before joining the oesophagus, the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. Air and food pass via the pharynx on their journey to the windpipe (trachea) or the oesophagus.
- Experts identify the cancerous cells in the tissues of the hypopharynx—the bottom region of the throat, also known as the pharynx—with this condition. Hypopharynx, in other words is, the gullet. The pharynx is a 5-inch-long hollow tube that starts behind the nose (nasopharynx) and travels down the neck (hypopharynx) before joining the oesophagus, the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. Air and food pass via the pharynx on their journey to the windpipe (trachea) or the oesophagus. The cells that line the hypopharynx are where most hypopharyngeal cancers begin.
- Cancerous cells are present in the tissues of the larynx or voice box in this condition. The larynx (voice box) is in the neck, immediately behind the pharynx (throat). It is a tube-like structure present in the neck, which is vital for talking, breathing and swallowing. The vocal cords are in the larynx, which vibrates and produce sound when air is in direction against them. Sound resonating through the pharynx, mouth, and nose creates a person’s voice.
- Cancerous cells are discovered in the tissues of the nasopharynx, which is the air passageway located on the top region of the throat behind the nose (also called the pharynx). People breathe through openings in their noses, which lead to the nasopharynx. The ear is accessed through two holes on the side of the nasopharynx. The soft palate is above the nasopharynx.
ORAL CAVITY AND LIP CANCER:
- A disease condition where the Cancerous cells are present in the tissues of the lip and mouth. The upper and lower gums, front two-thirds of the tongue, the lining of the inside of the cheeks and lips, the floor of the mouth under the tongue, the bony top of the mouth (hard palate), and the little area behind the wisdom teeth make up the oral cavity.
NASAL CAVITY AND PARANASAL SINUS CANCER:
- In this condition, an expert sees the cancerous cells in the tissues of the paranasal sinuses or nasal cavity. Paranasal sinuses are air-filled regions that surround the nasal cavity. The sinuses around the nose are little hollow chambers. The sinuses are in line with mucus-producing cells that keep the nose from drying up; they also provide a space for the voice to resonate and produce sounds when a person speaks or sings. The frontal sinuses (forehead), the maxillary sinuses (cheeks) in the upper part of each side of the upper jawbone, the ethmoid sinuses (between nose and eyes), and the sphenoid sinus (behind the ethmoid sinus in the centre of the skull) are all paranasal sinuses. The nasal cavity is a channel or passageway located just beneath the nose that allows air to pass through the throat during breathing.
SALIVARY GLAND CANCER:
- Cancerous cells are present in the tissues of the salivary glands in this condition. The salivary glands produces saliva and deliver it into the mouth to keep it moist and aid in the digestion of food. One can find the salivary glands in large clusters below the tongue, on the sides of the face, slightly in front of the ears, and beneath the jawbone. Other areas of the upper digestive tract include smaller clusters of salivary glands. The smaller salivary glands, in other words, are minor salivary glands.
SQUAMOUS CELL NECK CANCER:
- This cancer develops in the thin, flat cells that make up the skin’s surface, the lining of bodily organs, and the passages of the respiratory and digestive processes. Squamous cell carcinoma can start in the squamous cells and spread or metastasize to the lymph nodes in the neck or around the collarbone. Lymph nodes are tiny bean like shape structures located all over the body. They produce and store infection-fighting cells. When a doctor discovers a squamous cell cancer in the lymph nodes of the neck, he/she will try to determine where cancer began (the primary tumour). When a doctor cannot locate a primary tumour, the cancer is referred to as metastatic cancer with unseen occult primary.
- Thyroid cancer is a disorder in which malignant cells are discovered in the thyroid gland’s tissues. The thyroid gland is located near the base of the throat and consists of two lobes, one on each side. The hormones produced by the thyroid gland aid in the body’s normal functioning. Based on how the cancer cells appear under a microscope, there are four basic forms of thyroid cancer: follicular, papillary, medullary, and anaplastic.
SOFT TISSUE SARCOMA:
- A disease condition where cancerous cells are discovered in the soft tissue portions of the body. Muscles, connective tissues (tendons), veins that carry blood or lymph, joints, and fat are some of the soft tissues in the body.
- 1.Gilyoma JM, Rambau PF, Masalu N, Kayange NM, Chalya PL. Head and neck cancers: a clinico-pathological profile and management challenges in a resource-limited setting. BMC Res Notes. Published online December 2015. doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1773-9