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Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Inhibit Migration and Invasion of Bladder Cancer Cells by Reversing EMT through Suppression of TGF-β Signalling Pathway

Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Inhibit Migration and Invasion of Bladder Cancer Cells by Reversing EMT through Suppression of TGF-β Signalling Pathway

Bladder cancer (BC) is the cancer of the urinary tract and is a common cancer of the urinary tract too. Even with the advancement of technology and diagnosis methods, its prognosis is still not up to the mark due to a variety of reasons, such as recurrence and metastasis (spread of cancer from the place of origin to other body parts). Recent grape seed extract-based studies have promising results for Bladder cancer.

Grapeseed is a gift of nature. Nature has got tons of cancer fighters. Many fruits and vegetables have some kind of chemopreventive agent. Speaking of grape seed extract (GSE), it contains lots of antioxidants. The interest of consumers has peaked due to the fact that the antioxidants in the grape seed are superior to even Vitamin C and Vitamin E. Besides, why the demand for grape seed for cancer prevention is increasing can be attributed to the high content of antioxidants in the form of proanthocyanidins. We will elucidate here how we can use grape seed extract for bladder cancer.

Why grape seed extract?

Grape seeds are something derived from plants. We have long known that bioactive compounds in grape seed extracts selectively target many types of cancer cells. The medicinal use of plants and other natural extracts can be traced back for centuries in different cultures. Despite this history, it is only recently that technology has made it possible to truly explore the link between plants and a particular disease, cancer.

The grape seed extract is derived from the oil derived from the ground grapes of red wine. The extract contains a substance called proanthocyanidins, which, as we said earlier, have antioxidant properties. This contributes to its cancer-fighting abilities.

Grape seed extract for bladder cancer

EMT and migration of bladder cancer cells

Grape seed proanthocyanidins are known to be effective against many types of cancer. This has been proven in many studies conducted so far. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which the epithelial cells transition into the mesenchymal phenotype. It is a highly dynamic process and involves many transition states. These mesenchymal stem cells then can convert into a variety of different cells. 

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to play an important role in BC infiltration and metastasis. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) show chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity against a variety of cancers. However, their impact on the invasive potential of BC and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, it is found that GSP inhibits migration, infiltration, and MMP 2 / 9 secretion of T24 and 5637 bladder cancer cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. It is also found that 5637 cells were more suitable for EMT studies than T24 cells. 

Further studies show that GSP reverses EMT in 5637 cells by reversing TGF β-induced morphological changes and upregulation of mesenchymal markers E-cadherin, vimentin, slug, and epithelial markers E-cadherin and ZO1. It has been shown to inhibit. GSP also inhibited TGFβ-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 / 3, Akt, Erk, and p38 in 5637 cells without affecting the overall expression of Smad2 / 3, Akt, Erk, and p38. 

In summary, the results of this study show that GSP strongly inhibits BC cell migration and infiltration by reversing EMT through suppression of the TGFβ signalling pathway, which is potential bladder cancer. It suggests that it can be developed as a chemical preventive and therapeutic drug.

How can GSE be taken? 

GSE has shown to be effective against a whole bunch of numerous cancers like colon, breast, skin, and lung cancer. Its cancer-preventive properties are not hidden from the world now. It is slowly becoming a popular dietary supplement choice for cancer patients and all others who want to boost their health.

Incorporate this remarkable chemopreventive agent into your lifestyle to reduce the risk of so many cancers. It comes in all sorts of concentrations and forms to give you the benefits of GSE. You can choose the liquid form or take it as an oral pill or capsule. Usage: Add 10 drops of liquid grape seed extract concentrate to fresh juice or water. Drink it with or without food. This solution can be taken up to 3 times a day. If you take capsules, take 1 capsule once or twice daily. 

When to avoid GSE?

If you are taking warfarin or other anticoagulants then you should avoid GSE intake. According to laboratory studies, grape seeds can increase the risk of bleeding. The clinical relevance has not yet been determined. You are taking a CYP3A4 substrate drug and or, UGT substrate drugs. Laboratory studies suggest that grape seeds may increase the risk of side effects. Although clinical relevance has not yet been determined.

If you ask for the risk involved with the GSE then, people with grape allergies should not use grape seed extract. Another thing to consider would be: If you have a bleeding disorder or high blood pressure, consult your doctor before starting to use grape seed extract. 

Summing up

We have gone through how grape seed extract can be useful in treating bladder cancer. GSE can be also used as a chemopreventive supplement. Grapeseed is not only effective against only one type of cancer but it has shown to work wonders against many other types of cancer like lung, skin, breast, and colon cancer as well. The studies are still being carried out to draw the maximum benefit of grape seed extract. Each day comes up with a newer and better approach to using this natural drug. 

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