The grape seed extract is a grape seed industrial derivative. It is rich in antioxidants and proanthocyanidin complexes and has been linked to many possible health benefits. Grape (Vitis vinifera) belongs to the family Vitaceae. Grapes themselves is widely consumed all over the world. In Europe, grapes, their leaves and sap have been used in the traditional treatment of several diseases like cancer treatment for ages. The seeds of wine grapes are usually wont to gather Grape Seed Extract (GSE). The grapes seed extract is highly rich in Polyphenols like proanthocyanidins. Some researchers believe that proanthocyanidins hold a range of benefits. Proanthocyanidins can act as a functional ingredient to address various health issues by boosting up the natural processes of the body.

Various studies proved that the proanthocyanidin in grape seed extract provides benefits against many diseases like inflammation, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, cancer, peptic ulcers, and microbial infections.GSE shows anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-necrotic, cardiovascular and anti-carcinogenic activity and has beneficial effects against several diseases, including skin ageing

Besides their antioxidant activity, it also contains some enzymes that catalyze histamine release during inflammation and allergies. Grapeseed oil contains a high amount of fatty acids (unsaturated) ranging from 85 to 90%. These fatty acids are related to reducing cardiovascular disease, cancer, hypertension, and autoimmune disorders. The seeds and peels of grapes also contain a considerable portion of dietary fibre that lowers the risks of different types of cancer, heart disease, diabetes and obesity.

Grape Seed Extract Activity

  • Grape seed extract could have anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential.
  • Grape seed extract finds effective in treating heart disease.
  • protects against pathogens
  • reduces edema
  • (GSPE) Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract has the potential to increase wound healing.
  • The grape seed extracts have High polymeric Flava, used in mucosal infection such as vaginal candidiasis and other candida species. 
  • Prevents tooth decaying 
  • helps in improving eyesight
  • Including grape seed extract with calcium in the diet has beneficial effects on bone formation and strengthening of bones and effective treatment of bone debility caused by a low calcium level.
  • effective in Alzheimer’s disease
  • Some researchers believe that proanthocyanidins inhibit dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the hormones thought to be involved in hair loss.
  • posses anti-ageing properties 
  • used in treating diabetes and improving sugar level in blood 
  • The grape seed extract, i.e., GSPE (grape seed proanthocyanidin extract), provides superior antioxidant efficacy compared to Vitamins C, E, and β-carotene, preventing blood vessels from damage from high blood pressure.
  • relieving symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency
  • reducing iron levels in people with hemochromatosis 

Anticancer Activity

The suggested mechanisms of anticancer activity attributed to the expression of pro-angiogenic factors like-angiopoietins and the vascular endothelial growth factor, and the inactivation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) signalling pathway, which leads to induction of apoptosis of cancer cells. This study opined that GSE could be used as a supplement in cancer treatment.

Grape seed extract and Colorectal cancer

GSE halts the growth of these cancer cells. The anticancer effects of whole black grape (seeds included) extract also are reported within the cancerous colon tissues of humans via inhibition in DNA turnover enzymes. The anticancer effects of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds against colon cancer Caco2 cells have also been demonstrated by inhibiting the survival pathway and induction of apoptosis.

Grape seed extract and Breast cancer

This study revealed that GSE could be used in combination with doxorubicin to enhance the efficacy of this drug. In a chemoprevention setting, supplementation of GSE in rodent diet significantly reduced DMBA-induced mammary tumour multiplicity in female rats. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibited the metastatic potential of 4T1 breast cancer cells. Grape seeds inhibited the activity and expression of this enzyme, which is responsible for converting androgens into estrogens, as estrogen plays a substantial role in breast cancer.

Grape seed extract and wound healing

Researchers of Ohio University’s heart and lung research institute reported that the GSE helps in wound healing in two ways: 

(1) GSE helps the body in the regeneration of the damaged blood vessels

(2) GSE increases the number of free radicals present at the wound site. Free radical helps in killing and clearing pathogenic bacteria and endotoxin from the site and helps in the curing of wounds. 

Apart from the antioxidant properties of proanthocyanidin, the concentration of free radicals on the wound site also increases, which helps in the proliferation of cells, formation of connective tissue and new blood vessels.

Grape seed extract  and Cardiovascular disease (CVD)

Consumption of grapes rich in polyphenols decreases cardiovascular mortality. It was concluded that the GSE containing proanthocyanidin has atherogenic effects. Thus, GSE can reduce the risk of CVD by inhibiting the oxidation of LDL, improving endothelial function, inhibiting platelet aggregation, reducing inflammation, lowering blood pressure, and preventing cell senescence.

GSE can also use to minimize the accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and dietary fat absorption by inhibiting fat metabolizing enzyme

Grape seed extract and  Antihypertensive activity 

Hypertension refers to the condition in which blood forces against the wall of arteries are too high. GSE enriched with proanthocyanidin is capable of controlling hypertension. GSE exerts antihypertensive action by suppressing oxidative stress, inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation. The consumption of grapes rich in polyphenols regularly improves blood pressure.

Grape seed extract and Peptic ulcer

It was reported that GSE rich in proanthocyanidin protects and provides immunity against chronic and acute gastric and intestinal oxidative injury through membrane microviscosity within the gastric and duodenal membrane. It exhibited antioxidant activity and higher gastroprotective as compared to vitamin C and E. This gastroprotective effect of GSE might be due to the protein binding ability of procyanidins covering the stomach surface.

GSE in cosmetic and nutraceuticals

GSE can be used in various cosmetic products. Cosmetics rich in antioxidants protect against harmful UV radiations. A study reveals that proanthocyanidin rich in GSE has a promising role as anti-ageing. 

preventive measures with Grape seed extract

  • Grape seed extract acts as an anticoagulant or blood-thinner, but if taken with other blood-thinners such as warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin, it could increase the risk of bleeding. 
  • It was advised to avoid grape seed extract during pregnancy.

Some common side effects are headaches, sore throat, dizziness, itchy scalp, stomach ache and Nausea. 

They are generally tolerated well when taken in moderate amounts. You should consult with a doctor first to make sure it is safe for you to use.