Childhood Neuroblastoma

  • 1. Childhood Neuroblastoma
  • Summary Neuroblastoma is one of the most common tumors in children derived from primordial neural crest cells that are precursors of the sympathetic nervous system. NBLs consist of undifferentiated, immature, small, rounded-shaped sympathetic neurons, neuroblasts with little cytoplasm, small in...
  • 2. Risk factors of neuroblastoma
  • Summary As Neuroblastoma (NBL) is an extremely rare cancer, very few studies have been reported that look into the risk factors of NBL. The risk factors associated with NBL include genetic predisposition and familial risk, parental occupational exposure, maternal alcohol consumption, oral contra...
  • 3. Prevention of Neuroblastoma
  • Summary Although there are no such recommended prevention strategies available for the prevention of neuroblastoma; however, people are suggested to avoid exposure to occupational hazards, maternal alcohol consumption, oral contraceptive and non-prescribed drugs, and maternal infection for decr...
  • 4. Signs and Symptoms of Neuroblastoma
  • Summary NBL usually has a wide range of clinical symptoms depending on the primary tumor's size, location, biological characteristics, and the presence or absence of distant metastatic disease. Symptoms of encephalopathy and paraneoplastic syndromes may be observed in addition to other associat...
  • 5. Diagnosis of neuroblastoma
  • Summary Various diagnostics tests are used for the detection of neuroblastoma (NBL) tumor size, location and the spread of cancer. The diagnostics tests used for NBL include CT scan, MRI imaging, Bone scan, PET scan, mIBG Scan, Blood tests, Biomarker detection, Urine tests, and Bone marrow aspir...
  • 6. Stages and Grades of Neuroblastoma
  • Summary Staging for neuroblastoma is performed according to the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group System (INRGSS) in parallel with the old International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) classification system. Neuroblastoma can be classified into Stage 1, Stage 2A, 2B, Stage 3, and Stage ...
  • 7. Treatment of Childhood Neuroblastoma
  • Summary Due to the diversity and complexity of neuroblastoma (NBL) treatment options may vary depending on the stage and grade of cancer, cancer spread and age of the children. The various treatment options for NBL include surgery, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Introduction Due to the d...
  • 8. Follow up care for Neuroblastoma
  • Summary Once primary treatment for NBL has been completed, survivors usually visit a doctor or cancer care provider for regular check-ups and consultations. The follow up regime for the NBL patients may differ among patients with low risk, intermediate risk and high risk NBL. Introduction ...
  • 9. Questions to be asked during neuroblastoma
  • The caregivers of the patients with neuroblastoma (NBL) need to have open discussions with the doctor or the cancer care team. The parents and the caregivers of the NBL patients should ask any question, no matter how minor it might seem. Here are some questions patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ...
  • 10. Coping with treatment of Neuroblastoma
  • Summary Children with neuroblastoma (NBL) and their family members face major challenges whilst undergoing treatment for cancer. Some of the critical challenges the caregivers face include coping with the pain of NBL treatment, emotional side effects of NBL and the financial burdens of NBL treat...