Risk factors influence the chance of developing cancer among individuals, but individuals with no risk factors also develop cancer. Different types of Central Nervous System tumors occur in various age groups. Some CNS tumors are more common in children younger than 3. Some of the risk factors of developing a Central Nervous System tumor among children include Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), causing neurofibromas to form on peripheral nerves in the body, brown spots on the skin, tissue and bone abnormalities, other genetic causes such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Tuberous sclerosis complex, Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, Turcot syndrome, Lynch syndrome, BRCA2 gene mutations and Neurofibromatosis Type 2.
The risk factor Central Nervous System tumors can be anything that influences cancer development. But having a risk factor, or many, does not give certainty of having particular cancer. Some people with no risk factors can also develop cancer.
The cause of most Central Nervous System tumors in children is not known. Researchers are studying possible causes of CNS tumors, including viruses. Cell phone and head injury use do not cause a CNS tumor.
Different types of Central Nervous System tumor occur in various age groups. For example, some CNS tumors are more common in children younger than 3.
The below-mentioned risk factors may raise a child’s risk of developing a Central Nervous System tumor 1,2:
- Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). Only a tiny percentage of children with a brain tumor has a known genetic cause, usually associated with a familial disease called NF-1. It is an inherited disorder that causes noncancerous tumors called neurofibromas to form on peripheral nerves in the body, brown spots on the skin, tissue and bone abnormalities. NF-1 is also known as Recklinghausen’s disease or von Recklinghausen’s disease.
- Other genetic causes – Other, less common genetic conditions associated with a higher risk of Central Nervous System tumors include 3:
- Li-Fraumeni syndrome
- Tuberous sclerosis complex
- Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome
- Turcot syndrome
- Lynch syndrome
- BRCA2 gene mutations
- Neurofibromatosis Type 2
- Kool M, Koster J, Bunt J, et al. Integrated Genomics Identifies Five Medulloblastoma Subtypes with Distinct Genetic Profiles, Pathway Signatures and Clinicopathological Features. Hide W, ed. PLoS ONE. Published online August 28, 2008:e3088. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003088
- Ramis R, Tamayo-Uria I, Gómez-Barroso D, et al. Risk factors for central nervous system tumors in children: New findings from a case-control study. Hoppin J, ed. PLoS ONE. Published online February 17, 2017:e0171881. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0171881
- Sch�z J, Kaletsch U, Kaatsch P, Meinert R, Michaelis J. Risk factors for pediatric tumors of the central nervous system: Results from a German population-based case-control study. Med Pediatr Oncol. Published online 2001:274-282. doi:10.1002/1096-911x(20010201)36:2<274::aid-mpo1065>3.0.co;2-d