Cayenne pepper is a spicy chilli that belongs to the Capsicum genus. Cayenne peppers are a type of tapering, 10 to 25 cm long, usually red-colored peppers with a curved tip and somewhat rippling skin that dangle from the bush rather than growing erect. To create the powdered spice of the same name, the fruits are usually dried and pulverized. People commonly utilize it to add flavour to savory foods, and the pepper’s ingredients may provide health advantages.
Cayenne peppers are linked to bell peppers and jalapeno. Southwestern American, Mexican, Cajun, and Creole cuisines all use them. They’re dried and processed to produce a powdered seasoning, but they’re also used whole in Korean, Sichuan, and other Asian cuisines.
Meanwhile, traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine practitioners utilize cayenne pepper to treat a variety of ailments, including circulation issues.
Capsaicin, which is responsible for the pepper’s spiciness is the key component in many topical treatments for muscle and joint aches and pains.
These peppers have a high nutritional profile, including a range of antioxidants that are good for the health.
Health benefits of cayenne pepper
Cayenne pepper may provide a variety of health advantages, which can be obtained through the use of capsaicin-containing products or by consuming the peppers themselves.
1. Boosting antioxidant activity
Cayenne pepper contains the following antioxidants:
• Vitamin C, which aids the immune system as well
• Vitamin E
• Beta carotene
• Cryptoxanthin, a vitamin A source
Cryptoxanthin is a kind of pigment known as a carotenoid, and it is responsible for the red color of the pepper.
Antioxidants provide a variety of health advantages by assisting the body in the removal of free radicals (toxic chemicals) that may harm the body if too many accumulate.
Free radical removal may aid in the prevention of a variety of health issues, including cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s.
Some antioxidants are produced by the body, while others are obtained from food.
2. Boost metabolism
Cayenne peppers contain capsaicin, which boosts metabolism. It helps you burn more calories each day by boosting the amount of heat produced by your body. This is accomplished by a process known as diet-induced thermogenesis, which causes your metabolism to speed up.
3.Aid digestive health
Spices and their active ingredients in food may have a number of health advantages for your stomach.
Cayenne pepper, for example, may help enhance the stomach’s fight against infections, increase digestive fluid production, and promote digestion by delivering enzymes to the stomach.
It accomplishes this by activating neurons in the stomach that indicate damage protection.
4.Help relieve pain
When applied to the skin as a cream, capsaicin has strong pain-relieving effects.
Capsaicin does this by lowering the quantity of substance P, a neuropeptide generated by the body and sent to the brain to indicate pain.
When there is less substance P generated, pain signals are unable to reach the brain, and pain sensations are reduced.
Cayenne in cancer
Cancer is a condition in which cells proliferate uncontrollably.
Dietary phytochemicals have anticancer potential, according to epidemiological and experimental data. Cayenne peppers contain capsaicin, a bioactive phytochemical. While the overwhelming evidence suggests that capsaicin has anticancer properties, additional research on the molecular mechanisms of action is needed to increase our understanding and to offer a viable treatment strategy for using capsaicin against cancer. Several genes involved in cancer cell survival, growth arrest, angiogenesis, and metastasis have been found to be altered by capsaicin. Capsaicin has recently been discovered to target numerous signalling pathways, oncogenes, and tumor-suppressor genes in a variety of cancer models by a number of research groups.
Mechanism of Action
Capsaicin is the chemical that gives capsicum its irritating properties. The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), which is found in neurons on the tongue, causes the sensation of heat after consuming cayenne pepper. Because capsinoids are digested when they traverse the oral mucosa, they lack this sensory property. TRPV1-receptor activation on vagal afferents in the stomach may potentially have thermogenic effects. Capsaicin can increase energy expenditure by raising core body and skin temperatures and affecting substrate oxidation, however these effects might vary depending on body composition. Oral capsaicin treatment increased insula and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) metabolic activity in response to high-salt stimuli, correcting salt intensity-dependent variations in insula and OFC metabolism.
The release of calcitonin gene-related peptide is thought to have vasodilator effects (CGRP). The depletion of CGRP causes a rise in blood pressure. Capsaicin-cyclosporin interactions imply that CYP3A suppression increases cyclosporin bioavailability through modulating P-gp and CYP3A gene expression. Lignan glycosides extracted from capsicum pepper appear to have significant free radical scavenging action.
Capsaicin promotes cell-cycle arrest and death in both ER+ and ER breast cancer cells via regulating the EGFR/HER-2 pathway, according to in vitro and animal studies. Capsaicin inhibited PSA production and downregulated androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells when taken orally. Capsaicin causes cell death in bladder cancer by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depolarizing mitochondria. Capsaicin, on the other hand, may enhance colorectal metastasis by activating ROS generation and altering the Akt/mTOR and STAT-3 pathways at certain doses.
The digestive system can be irritated by capsaicin.
Spicy meals may be especially harmful to those who suffer from:
• Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
• Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Although many foods can cause allergic reactions in some people, research indicates that a cayenne pepper sensitivity is uncommon.
Those who get hives, edema, or trouble breathing after consuming cayenne pepper should seek medical help right once.
Cayenne pepper is derived from the fruit of the Capsicum plant and is one of the most commonly used culinary spices. It’s traditionally been used as a laryngitis gargle and as a gastrointestinal stimulant taken orally. Oral formulations are mostly sold to treat digestive and circulatory issues, as well as low appetite and weight loss. Capsaicin, the main ingredient, is also sold as a topical treatment for a variety of pains and skin problems.
Capsaicin has been shown to boost insulin and lower blood glucose levels. Humans can be stimulated by nonpungent capsaicin analogues, but their potential significance in energy expenditure and weight control issues has to be clarified. Capsaicin’s thermogenic and appetitive effects have also been shown to be minor. In one research, individuals were given oral capsaicin, which increased salty taste perceptions while reducing daily salt intake and blood pressure. Although a pilot study of enteric-coated oral capsaicin for irritable bowel syndrome patients found it to reduce visceral hyperalgesia and improve bloating, supplementation with capsicum for burning mouth syndrome was linked to severe GI adverse effects.
Another research of oral capsaicin found that it can reduce the discomfort of oral mucositis caused by cancer treatment, although the alleviation was only brief. Capsicum active components are still debated as to whether they are carcinogens, co-carcinogens, or anti-carcinogens, and their effects may be concentration-dependent. In vitro investigations on breast, bladder, prostate, and oral cancer cell lines, as well as multidrug-resistant lymphoma, have revealed cytotoxic effects. However, a human case-control research shows that eating capsaicin increases the risk of stomach cancer. As a result, additional research is needed to determine the function of capsaicin in cancer.