Aloxi (Palonosetron Hydrochloride)


Aloxi is a prescription medicine; and in other words, a “antiemetic.” Experts use this medication to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer drug treatment (chemotherapy). They also use it to prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery. Palonosetron works by blocking one of the body’s natural substances (serotonin) that causes vomiting. Aloxi is a prescription medicine used in adults. It is not known if Aloxi is safe and effective in people under the age of 18 years. It is a serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist with a strong binding affinity for this receptor.

The empirical formula is C19H24N2O.HCl, with a molecular weight of 332.87. Palonosetron hydrochloride exists as a single isomer.

Palonosetron hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in water, soluble in propylene glycol, and slightly soluble in ethanol and 2-propanol.

Aloxi injection is a sterile, clear, colourless, nonpyrogenic, isotonic, buffered solution for intravenous administration. Aloxi injection is available as a 5 mL single-use vial or 1.5 mL single-use vial. Each 5 mL vial contains 0.25 mg palonosetron base as 0.28 mg palonosetron hydrochloride; 207.5 mg mannitol disodium edetate and citrate buffer in water for intravenous administration. Each 1.5 mL vial contains 0.075 mg palonosetron base as 0.084 mg palonosetron hydrochloride, 83 mg mannitol, disodium edetate and citrate buffer in water for intravenous administration. The pH of the solution in the 5 mL and 1.5 mL vials is 4.5 to 5.5.

The recommended dosage of ALOXI capsules in adults is 0.5 mg administered orally approximately one hour prior to the start of chemotherapy. Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature] and protect from light.

Side Effects:

This medication may increase serotonin and rarely cause a very serious condition called serotonin syndrome/toxicity. The risk increases if you are also taking other drugs that increase serotonin, so tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the drugs you take. Get medical help right away if you develop some of the following symptoms: fast heartbeat, hallucinations, loss of coordination, severe dizziness, severe nausea/vomiting/diarrhoea, twitching muscles, unexplained fever, unusual agitation/restlessness. 

Pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site may occur. Headache, constipation, or diarrhoea may also occur. If any of these effects last or get worse, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.  

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.