BLOOD TYPING (ABO)

Introduction

The identification of the ABO blood group over 100 years since caused great enthusiasm. All blood was the same until then, and scientists did not know the often tragic results of blood transfusions. As our knowledge of the ABO group grew, not only did the system of blood transfusion become a big deal safer, but scientists could now examine one of the first human features proven to be inherited. Prosecutors used an individual’s ABO blood type in paternity suits, police officers in forensic science, and anthropologists to study different populations.

The ABO blood group antigens reside of prime importance in transfusion medicine—they are the usual immunogenic of all the blood group antigens. The most frequent cause of death from a blood transfusion is a typing error in which the wrong type of ABO blood is transfused. The ABO blood group antigens also seem important throughout our development because the incidences of different ABO blood types vary among diverse populations, suggesting that a distinct blood type conferred a selection benefit (e.g., resistance against infectious disease.)

Yet, despite their apparent clinical significance, the physiological roles of ABO blood group antigens remain a mystery. People with the standard blood type O reveal neither the A nor B antigen, and they are healthy. Various associations have been made within particular ABO phenotypes and increased susceptibility to disease. For instance, the ABO phenotype has been associated with stomach ulcers (more prevalent in group O individuals) and gastric cancer (more prevalent in group A). A different observation is that people with blood type O tend to have cheaper levels of the von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a protein implicated in blood clotting.

OVERVIEW

Blood typing is an examination that determines an individual’s blood type. The test is essential if you want a blood transfusion or are preparing to give blood. Not all blood types are fit, so it’s critical to know your blood group. Getting blood that’s conflicting with your blood type could trigger a severe immune response.

BLOOD TYPES

The blood type is defined by what sort of antigens the red blood cells have on the surface. Antigens are elements that help your body distinguish between its cells and foreign, possibly dangerous ones. If your body thinks a cell is unfamiliar, it will set out to ruin it.

The ABO blood typing system organizations your blood into one of four classes:

  • Type A contains the A antigen.
  • Type B contains the B antigen.
  • Type AB holds both A and B antigens.
  • Type O has neither A nor B antigens.

If blood with antigens that you don’t have accesses your system, your body will generate antibodies against it. Some people can, however, safely get blood that isn’t their blood type. As long as the blood they get doesn’t have any antigens that identify it as foreign, their bodies won’t tackle it.

In simpler words, donations work as follows:

  • O: Type O people can donate blood to anyone because their blood has no antigens. Nevertheless, they can only get blood from other people with blood group O (blood with any antigens is seen as foreign).
  • A: Type A people can donate to other type A individuals and type AB selves. Type A people can accept blood only from other type A persons and type O persons.
  • B: Type B people can donate blood to other B people and AB individuals. Type B people can accept blood only from type B persons and type O persons.
  • AB: Type AB people can give blood only to other AB people but can receive the blood of any kind.

Blood types are more organized by Rh factor:

  • Rh-positive: Personalities with Rh-positive blood have Rh antigens on the surface of their red blood cells. Individuals with Rh-positive blood can get Rh-positive or Rh-negative blood.
  • Rh-negative: Personalities with Rh-negative blood do not have Rh antigens. Individuals with Rh-negative blood can get only blood that is also Rh-negative.

Collectively, the ABO and Rh grouping systems yield your whole blood type. There are eight permissible types: O-positive, O-negative, A-positive, A-negative, B-positive, B-negative, AB-positive, plus AB-negative. As type O-negative has long been considered a universal donor, more recent research implies that supplementary antibodies are sometimes present and may cause severe reactions during a transfusion.

WHY BLOOD TYPING

Blood typing is carried out before a blood transfusion or when analyzing a person’s blood for donation. Blood typing is a quick and easy way to guarantee that you receive the correct blood type during surgery or after an injury. If someones’s given incompatible blood, it can cause the blood to clump or agglutinate, which can be deadly.

Blood typing is significant for pregnant women. If the mom is Rh-negative and the dad is Rh-positive, the child will possibly be Rh-positive. In such situations, the mother requires to receive a medication called RhoGAM. This medicine will keep her body from making antibodies that may invade the baby’s blood cells if their blood becomes jumbled, usually observed during pregnancy.

RISKS OF BLOOD TYPE

One will require to have the blood drawn to have it typed. Having the blood drawn brings very minimal risks, including:

  • bleeding beneath the skin called a hematoma
  • fainting or feeling dizzy
  • infection at the puncture position
  • extreme bleeding

PREPARATION

No careful preparation is required for blood typing. If one thinks they might feel faint while the test, they can want someone to drive them home afterward.

HOW IS BLOOD TYPING PERFORMED

Professionals can do the blood draw at a hospital or a clinical laboratory. The skin will be cleaned ere the test with an antiseptic to help deter infection. A nurse or technician will clothe a band around the arm to make the veins more visible. They will employ a needle to draw numerous samples of blood from one’s arm or hand. Following the draw, gauze and a bandage will be installed over the puncture position.

A lab technician will combine your blood sample with antibodies that hit types A and B blood to see how it reacts to determine your blood type. If your blood cells agglutinate or clump together when blended with antibodies against type A blood, for instance, you have type B blood. The technician will then process your blood sample with an anti-Rh serum. If your blood cells agglutinate or clump together in reply to the anti-Rh serum, it signifies that you have Rh-positive blood.

ABO BLOOD TYPE AND RISK OF CANCER

A cohort study examined the associations between ABO blood type and risk of all cancer and specific cancers.

Both blood types B and AB were linked with a significantly iller risk of gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal cancer. Blood type B was also correlated with a substantially lower risk of stomach cancer and bladder cancer. In contrast, blood type AB was connected with a significantly heightened risk of liver cancer. By histological class, blood types B and AB were linked with a decreased risk of epidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Still, they were not associated with the risk of sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia, or other cell types of cancer.

PANCREATIC CANCER

A lower incidence of pancreatic cancer among patients having blood group O was recognized in some studies.

A study reported an increased risk of contracting pancreatic cancer in patients having blood groups other than O. Still, it did not witness a significant effect of the ABO blood group on overall survival.

By distinction, another study slipped to find evidence of an influence of ABO blood type on the prophecy of pancreatic cancer patients.

RESPIRATORY TRACT CANCERS

Some analysts demonstrated that blood type A is associated with an increased risk of developing this cancer and a poorer prognosis as far as nasopharyngeal carcinomas. More precisely, patients with blood type A had a significantly weaker overall survival rate than non-A type, although this association was not confirmed by others. No meaningful association connecting the ABO blood group and the incidence or mortality of laryngeal carcinoma or malignant mesothelioma was recognized by other researchers.

BREAST CANCER

Various investigators have evaluated the relationship linking the ABO blood group and breast cancer. A novel meta-analysis of 14 studies including 9,665 breast cancer patients and 244,768 controls recommended that Caucasian people with blood type A have a greater risk of this cancer than Caucasians with other blood groups.

 A retrospective study could demonstrate population-based research including 426 patients experiencing surgical therapy for breast cancer, no significant differences in overall and disease-free survival among the subjects with different blood type groups. Lastly, another study showed no association between the ABO blood group and cancer survival in 468 patients with triple-negative including estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone-receptor negative, and HER2 non-amplified breast cancer.