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Causes and Prevention for Bile Duct Cancer

The bile duct cancer formation of malignant or cancerous cells in the tissues of the liver is known as liver cancer.

Infections with chronic Hepatitis B and C are risk factors for liver cancer.

The risk of liver cancer increases if you have chronic hepatitis B (HBV) or chronic hepatitis C (HCV). People who have both HBV and HCV, as well as those who have other risk factors in addition to the hepatitis virus, are at an even higher risk. Men who have been infected with HBV or HCV for a long time are more likely than women to develop liver cancer.

In Asia and Africa, chronic HBV infection is the primary cause of liver cancer. In North America, Europe, and Japan, chronic HCV infection is the primary cause of liver cancer.

Other risk factors that may raise the risk of liver cancer include:


Cirrhosis, a disorder in which healthy liver tissue is replaced by scar tissue, increases the risk of getting liver cancer. The scar tissue obstructs the passage of blood through the liver, preventing it from functioning properly. Cirrhosis is commonly caused by prolonged alcoholism and chronic hepatitis infections. People with HCV-related cirrhosis are more likely to develop liver cancer than those with HBV- or alcohol-related cirrhosis.

Heavy alcohol use

Cirrhosis, a risk factor for liver cancer, can be caused by excessive alcohol consumption. Heavy drinkers who do not have cirrhosis can get liver cancer. When compared to heavy alcohol users who do not have cirrhosis, heavy alcohol users with cirrhosis are ten times more likely to get liver cancer.

According to studies, people with HBV or HCV who drink heavily have an increased risk of liver cancer.

Aflatoxin B1

Eating foods containing aflatoxin B1 may raise your chances of getting liver cancer (poison from a fungus that can grow on foods, such as corn and nuts, that have been stored in hot, humid places). Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, and China are the most affected.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)

NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis) is a liver disease that causes scarring (cirrhosis) and can lead to liver cancer. It is the most severe form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), in which the liver has an abnormally high quantity of fat. This can induce inflammation (swelling) and harm some people’s liver cells.

Cirrhosis caused by NASH raises the risk of developing liver cancer. People with NASH who do not have cirrhosis have also developed bile duct cancer.

Cigarette smoking

Cigarettes have been related to an increased risk of bile duct cancer. The risk rises with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the length of time a person has been a smoker.

Other conditions-

Bile duct cancer is linked to a number of unusual medical and hereditary problems. The following are some of these conditions:

  • Hereditary hemochromatosis that has gone untreated (HH).
  • Deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT)
  • Glycogen storage disease
  • Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT)
  • Wilson’s disease 

Other ways that people might be able to reduce their risk of bile duct cancer include:

  • Get vaccinated against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent infection with this virus and the cirrhosis it can cause.
  • Take precautions to avoid blood-borne or sexually transmitted infections like HBV and other viruses (like hepatitis C virus) to help prevent cirrhosis.
  • Treat hepatitis infections (such as B and C) to help prevent cirrhosis.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Protect yourself against exposure to certain chemicals.

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