The chemical building component arginine is known as a “amino acid. “It comes from food and is required for the body to produce proteins. Red meat, chicken, fish, and dairy items all contain arginine. It’s also possible to make it in a lab and utilize it as medication. Nitric oxide is formed when arginine is transformed in the body.
Nitric oxide causes blood arteries to dilate, allowing more blood to flow through them. Arginine also promotes the production of growth hormone, insulin, and other hormones and chemicals in the body.
Congestive heart failure (CHF), chest discomfort, high blood pressure, and coronary artery disease are among diseases that can be treated with arginine. Arginine is also used to treat intermittent claudication (leg discomfort caused by clogged arteries), senile dementia (loss of mental ability in the elderly), erectile dysfunction (ED), and male infertility.
Preventing the common cold, improving kidney function after a kidney transplant, high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia), improving athletic performance, boosting the immune system, and preventing digestive tract inflammation in premature infants are all reasons why some people use arginine.
For a variety of diseases, arginine is used with a variety of over-the-counter and prescription medicines. For example, arginine is used in conjunction with ibuprofen to treat migraine headaches; with traditional chemotherapy drugs to treat breast cancer; with other amino acids to treat weight loss in people with AIDS; and with fish oil and other supplements to reduce infections, improve wound healing, and speed recovery after surgery. Some people use arginine on their skin to accelerate wound healing and increase blood flow to chilly hands and feet, particularly in diabetics. It’s also used as a cream for both men and women with sexual issues.
Cancer is the last stage of a multistep process that comprises three key elements: initiation, promotion, and progression (Fig. 1). Arginine is engaged in a variety of metabolic pathways that have a major impact on tumour biology and carcinogenesis. Since the discovery that arginine metabolism produces nitric oxide (NO), a ubiquitous signal transduction molecule,3 arginine-derived NO has been linked to many of the particular processes that contribute to cancer.
Although NO’s biochemistry is straightforward, its involvement in tumour biology is far more complicated. NO has been demonstrated to have opposing roles in tumour initiation, development, and progression, with seemingly opposing consequences. NO generation has a net biological effect that is determined by a number of variables, including its concentration, temporal expression, cell source, and target cell.
Furthermore, NO activity is influenced by the surrounding microenvironment due to its reactivity with reactive oxygen species, metal ions, and proteins. As a result, arginine-derived NO is regulated at numerous levels of complexity, with several feedback loops limiting its final impact.
fig : 1
The link between cancer and chronic inflammation has long been established. Chronic tissue inflammation has been linked to head cancer and neck cancer, oesophagus cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer, liver cancer, and skin cancer. Long-term exposure to NO caused by chronic inflammation has been linked to the development of cancer in a variety of organs.
The function of NO in the aetiology of ulcerative colitis has been postulated (Ulcerative colitis Cancer). In some colitis animal models, iNOS expression is elevated, and inhibiting NO production can help to alleviate symptoms. Excess NO production as a result of prolonged colonic inflammation may be linked to an elevated cancer rate in UC patients.
Increased iNOS activity in colon adenomas, colon cancer, and metastases has also shown a role for NO in sporadic colorectal cancer. NO may have a role in the transformation of a colorectal adenoma into a colorectal cancer.
NO has also been linked to the development of cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in studies. NO’s carcinogenic effects might be caused by a variety of processes, including direct DNA and protein damage, as well as the suppression of programmed cell death, which promotes aberrant cell development. Through various posttranslational changes, NO may also control critical proteins implicated in carcinogenesis. NO-mediated alteration of pro-apoptotic caspases may contribute to the carcinogenic process in some cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. The activation of tumour angiogenesis by NO may also increase tumour growth.
NO produced from arginine has also been linked to carcinogenesis in a variety of other organs. NO in cigarette smoke may have a role in the development of a number of smoking-related illnesses, such as lung cancer. Increased NOS activity has also been linked to metaplastic alterations in the breast and oesophagus (Brett’s oesophagus).
Chronic gastritis develops in patients with Helicobacter infection, and this chronic inflammation may lead to the development of stomach cancer. Infection with Helicobacter pylori causes an increase in iNOS expression, which results in the production of carcinogenic nitrosamines. UV exposure may also cause NO generation and oxidative damage to the skin, which can lead to melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
Researchers have suggested that NO might be a viable target for chemoprevention as a result of the aforementioned findings. A few research in rat colon and esophageal cancer models, as well as a mouse mammary adenocarcinoma model, have looked at the chemopreventative effects of NOS inhibition.