Cervical cancer occurs due to the uncontrollable growth of cells in the cervix. This abnormal growth of cells can seize the space of nearby tissues and spread across the entire body. Eventually, this growth of cells leads to the formation of cancer tumors. At the initial stage of cervical cancer, cells multiply at a slow rate, although they can catch speed and spread quickly. Commonly found cervical cancer is known as squamous cell carcinoma. The origin of this type of cervical cancer is due to the abnormal growth of squamous cells that lie on the surface of the cervix. This type of cervical cancer contributes up to 80% of all kinds of cervical cancers. The development in oncology has substantially increased the survival rate for most cervical cancer patients. With research, doctors are studying the various possible causes of cervical cancer and approaching early medication and treatment.
Every cervical cancer patient is different. Cervical Cancer starts due to the abnormal growth of cells that line the cervix. If not treated at an early stage, these abnormal cells turn cancerous. Cervical cancer types are of two primary forms: Squamous cell carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma.
The most common type of cervical cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which is usually witnessed near the areas of the body that are damaged by UV rays from the sun or due to tanning beds. A slow-growing type of cervical cancer, SCC spreads to the nearby tissues, bones, lymph nodes, which results in urgent treatment and medication. Below are the risk factors that can develop SCC:
At an initial stage, SCC can be treated with a minor surgery by the best cervical cancer hospitals. The size and the location of the squamous cell determine the further action taken by the doctors.
This type of cancer can occur in places like colon, breasts, esophagus, pancreas, lungs, or prostate. It is a type of cancer that begins in the glands that are lining the organs. In Adenocarcinoma, the growth of cells becomes uncontrollable and spreads to other organs, harming the healthy tissues of the body. Adenocarcinoma can happen in the following parts of the body:
Symptoms of Adenocarcinoma include acute pain, diarrhea, abnormal bleeding, unusual fatigue. Consult a doctor for physical examination if you feel major swelling in any of the body parts.
Usually, there are no signs and symptoms of cancer at a very early stage. For most women, within the early stage of cervical cancer, early signs do typically appear depending on the severity of the issue and to which level the disease has spread. Potential symptoms of cervical cancer are as follows:
If any of the above signs of cervical cancer and symptoms are observed, report to a doctor immediately. The earlier precancerous cells can be treated with medical facilities and minor surgery. If there is a frequent experience of any of the above symptoms, the concerned physicians will examine your medical history and question you about how often you've been experiencing the symptoms. This will help for further diagnosis
During recent years, there has been a lot of development and progress in comprehending what happens to the cells in the cervix when a form of cancer develops. There are several causes of cervical cancer that have been identified as reasons to develop cervical cancer. Cancers are generally caused by DNA mutations, also known as gene defects that specifically turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. HPV, the short abbreviation for Human Papillomaviruses, contain two proteins named E6 and E7, which deactivate some of the tumor suppressor genes, known as P53 and Rb. As a result, this allows the cells lining the cervix to grow invariably and develop additional genes leading to cancer. As per a study, HPV is not the definite cause of cervical cancer. Women with HPV usually don't get cervical cancer. Other risk factors like smoking and HIV infection become the main reason why women are exposed to develop cervical cancer.
It is vital to make the necessary changes in the lifestyle to reduce the risk of getting cervical cancer. The following are multiple steps that women can take to prevent cervical cancer. This includes: Regular Pap Testing: With regular checkups, one can remain aware of underlying symptoms or early stages of cervical cancer. Proper Vaccination: Three vaccines named Gardasil, Gardasil 9, and Cervarix have been developed to maintain immunity balance and increase the fighting power of cells. The HPV Vaccine is recommended for individuals ranging from 12-26 years of age. These vaccines are found to be effective in preventing infection with some strains of HPV. HPV can also lead to vulvar, vaginal, penile, and anal cancers if proper vaccination is not taken. Quit smoking: Tobacco, in recent years, has been the major reason for a decrease in immunity in most of the cases, paving the way for cancerous growth of cells. Limiting the number of sexual partners, or using the right protection, can reduce the risk of infection found in cervical cancer stages. Under most circumstances, it is advised to consult your respective dermatologist for routine skin checks. Also, avoid exposure to the sun during peak hours like noon. For delicate areas of skin, use sunscreen daily to avoid irritation and itchy skin. Avoid tanning beds as well.
Risk factors concerning the growth of cancer in the cervix are due to multiple reasons. According to a recent study, cancer hospitals have identified proper risk factors based on studying women affected by cervical cancer. In most cases, cervical cancer is caused by HPV, a common virus that can be passed from one person to another during sexual intercourse. There are types of HPV which can either cause changes in a woman's cervix or cause genital and skin warts. Other factors that can increase the risk of cervical cancer are listed below: Diagnosed with HIV or another condition that makes the immunity of the body weaker Aggressive smoking Consumption of birth control pills for a longer period of time Having several sexual partners.
Symptoms of cervical cancer will require an immediate diagnosis. The diagnosis of cervical cancer is made after detecting certain abnormal growth of cells in the routine checks. List of diagnostic procedures are as follows: Colposcopy: When diagnosed with cervical cancer, the next step is colposcopy. This test looks for abnormalities in the cervix and is conducted by a nurse, who is specifically called a colposcopist. The concerned colposcopist will use a device named speculum to open the woman's vagina (also a part of cervical screening). Doctors would use a microscope for thorough examination. To understand the growth of cancerous cells, a small part of the tissue is collected as a sample to examine the cervix; the procedure is called a biopsy. After a biopsy is done, the patient can encounter vaginal bleeding for a time period of 6 weeks. Remember, not all abnormalities confirm cancer symptoms, so consult a gynecologist for further treatment. After the results of the colposcopy confirm to be positive, the next steps work towards confining the cancer cells and stopping them from spreading to other parts of the body. Some further tests are prescribed for detailed report analysis:
Cancer treatments are often complex, with different cancer patients showing positive results to different treatments. Best cervical cancer treatments involve using multidisciplinary teams, MDTs, to treat cervical cancer and adapt the treatment program for the cancer patient. Various treatment options are available at the best cervical cancer hospitals such as Chemotherapy or subjected therapies, Radiation therapy, Surgeries, Hormone therapy, Immunotherapy, and Bone marrow or stem-cell therapy. Staging is a measurement to know how far the cancer has spread. After conducting various cancer tests, cervical cancer stages are analyzed.
Precancerous cells are present. Stage 0, also known as Carcinoma in situ, is treated by providing local ablative or by performing excisional measures such as: Cryosurgery: A type of surgery that is performed by expert surgeons. Under this surgery, the abnormal tissues are destroyed by using extremely cold temperatures. It involves the usage of liquid nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and argon. Laser ablation: This is the process of removing abnormal cervical cells through laser therapy so that healthy cells can grow back in its place. The survival rate under stage 0 cervical cancer is 100%, as the cancerous cells can be treated at the initial stage. According to a study, more than 90% of the women survive for five years after stage 0 diagnosis.
In stage I, cancer cells are detected and can be found in the cervix only. Stage I is then divided into stages IA and IB, depending on the size of the tumor and the deepest point of invasion.
To eliminate such early cervical cancer signs, Hysterectomy is followed by a course of radiotherapy to prevent the cancer from coming back. Two types of hysterectomies are designed to treat cervical cancer:
Under STAGE II, the cancerous cells have reached the upper twothirds of the vagina and across the tissue around the uterus. STAGE II is divided into STAGES IIA and IIB, depending on how far the tumor cells have spread:
Radiotherapy can be used with another form of surgery for the elimination of cervical cancer at Stage 2. Radiotherapy can be delivered either:
According to a recent study, approximately 60% of cervical cancer patients survived after 5 years from their radiation therapy. However, along with chemotherapy, survival chances are improved.
In the section of STAGE III, the cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina and/or to the pelvic wall and/or has caused kidney issues. STAGE III is categorized into STAGES IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC, depending on how far the cancer has spread.
Cervical Cancer patients with stage III experience a 5-year survival rate of 63%. The chances of the cancerous cells hitting back are reduced to 42% by providing best-in-class treatment.
Some of these treatments cannot ascertain the total recovery of cancer patients. The patients are advised and recommended to make minor changes in their living environment, diet plans, sleep patterns, workout schedule that will help reduce the stress after a particular treatment. Support from the community, cervical cancer awareness programs, and attending workshops that address cervical cancer survivors and promote routine checkups also help in a major part of the recovery.
Cervical cancer survivors need to make changes in their lifestyles to undergo successful remission. Symptoms like acute fatigue, unusual pain may also ease up or stop completely. Under remission, it is recommended to see a doctor for a routine checkup to make sure it doesn't start up again. Remission is of two types: Partial: The medical examinations and treatments given have destroyed the cancerous cells to an extent, but tests show they might still have some side effects. Complete: All signs of cancer are gone. All cervical cancer treatments have some side effects that might stay for a while. Consult an oncologist to decide which treatment suits best. Once in remission, take these healthy steps to keep the cancer at bay: