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Surgery for Colon Cancer


What is Colectomy?

A colectomy is the surgical operation to remove a portion or all of the colon.

Sometimes only part of the colon is removed. It is known as a hemicolectomy, partial colectomy, or segmental resection. The surgeon removes out the part of the colon with the cancer and a small segment of normal colon on either sides. Roughly, one-fourth to one-third of the colon is normally removed, depending on the cancer's size and location. Then, the remaining colon parts are re-attached. They also remove at least 12 surrounding lymph nodes, so they can be tested for cancer.

When the entire colon is removed, it is called a total colectomy. There is not always a need for total colectomy to treat Colon Cancer. It is mostly used only when there is another problem without cancer, such as hundreds of polyps (adenomatous polyposis) or, sometimes, inflammatory bowel disorder.

How is colectomy performed?

A colectomy can be performed in two ways:

Open colectomy: The Surgery is performed through a single long incision (cut) in the abdomen.

Laparoscopic-assisted colectomy: The Surgery is performed through many smaller incisions and special tools. A laparoscope is put into one of the small cuts, and flexible, thin instruments are put in through the others to remove part of the colon and lymph nodes.

Since the incisions in a laparoscopically assisted colectomy are smaller than in an open colectomy, patients often heal more rapidly and may be able to leave the hospital earlier than they would after an open colectomy. But Surgery of this type requires special expertise, and it may not be the best approach for everyone. If you are considering Surgery of this type, be sure to look for an experienced surgeon who has performed many of these operations.

What are the risks and side effects of colectomy?





  • Blood clots in the legs.
  • Pain
  • Bowel block

Surgery in Brain Tumour


What is Craniotomy?

A craniotomy is the removal of a portion of the bone from the skull to uncover the brain for Surgery. The surgeon uses special instruments for cutting the bone segment (the bone flap). The bone flap is replaced after the brain surgery, and attached it with small titanium plates and screws to the surrounding bone.

How is craniotomy performed?

The neurosurgeon cuts out a bone area from your skull during a craniotomy. It gives them an opening so they can work on the brain. Before the procedure, you may have scans to let the surgeon know where the tumour is. You may also have scans during the procedure. Many of those scans are loaded into a computer to provide the tumour's precise location. Your surgeon puts the bone back after removing the tumour. With small metal brackets, they secure the bone, and stitch the skin over it. In most cases, your hair will conceal the scar.

What are the types of Craniotomy?

  • Awake craniotomy

  • When the tumour is close to a part of the brain that regulates essential functions like voice, movement, or feeling, an awake craniotomy is performed.

    There are various ways of having an awake craniotomy. Some people are awake (conscious) for portion of the operation while some may be up all the time.

    If you are going to be awake for portion of the surgery, you have a general anaesthesia at the beginning. The anaesthetic is then reduced so that you wake up for the main part. You then have another general anaesthetic for the final part of your Surgery.

    The surgeon asks you to do tasks during an awake craniotomy while they check the function of various parts of the brain. They might ask you, for example, to talk, move a part of your body or ask you what you can feel

    Upon removal of the tumour, the surgeon repairs the skull and stitches the skin.

    The thought of getting brain Surgery while you are awake can sound very frightening. In the procedure, you have an anaesthetic to relax any places that cause discomfort such as the skin and muscle. The brain itself has no Pain receptors so it feels no Pain.

  • Neuroendoscopy

  • Neuroendoscopy is also termed keyhole brain Surgery. You might have it to remove all or part of a tumour in the brain (ventricles). You may also be given a neuroendoscopy to eliminate fluid build-up in your brain (hydrocephalus).

    An endoscope is a medical device consisting of a long tube with a camera connected to a monitor and an eyepiece. The surgeon makes a small hole in the skull. It is known as the Burr hole. Then the endoscope is placed into the hole. Through the eyepiece or on a monitor, the surgeon will see what is at the tip of the endoscope. On the end of the endoscope tiny forceps and scissors are present for removal of the tumour.

    Removing a pituitary tumour via the nose

    The pituitary is a tiny gland above the back of your nose. Your surgeon may be able to remove a tumour in the pituitary gland through the nose. This procedure is called transsphenoidal Surgery.

    Your surgeon usually makes a small cut in the bone and cartilage on the thin wall, separating the nostrils (the nasal septum). They put tools through this hole up to the pituitary gland to remove the tumour.

    What are the risks and side effects of craniotomy?

    • Infection

    • Bleeding

    • Blood clots

    • Pneumonia (infection of the lungs)

    • Unstable blood pressure

    • Seizures

    • Muscle weakness

    • Brain swelling

    • Leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain)

    Surgery for stomach cancer


    What is Gastrectomy?

    If you have cancer of the stomach, your doctor may recommend you take part or all of your stomach out. While this will change the way you digest food, you can still eat and drink. The Surgery will also stop the spread of the cancer, and keep it from returning.

    Gastrectomy is the Surgery to remove the stomach. It is of various types depending on your cancer stage and location.

    You might have:

    • a subtotal or partial gastrectomy - Part of the stomach is removed

    • a total gastrectomy - Entire stomach is removed

    • an oesophagogastrectomy -Entire stomach and the part of the food pipe (oesophagus) is removed

    How is Gastrectomy performed?

    Most subtotal and total gastrectomies are performed through a large incision (cut). They can be performed in some facilities using laparoscopy, which allows removal of the stomach through several smaller cuttings in the abdomen. While this method shows promise, many doctors believe these needs to be more researched before it can be considered a normal Stomach Cancer treatment.

    For a gastrectomy, you would need to go to the hospital. If the doctor makes a large incision to remove your stomach, it may take between 4 to 5 hours.

    First, you will get anaesthesia to make you sleep through the Surgery. A surgeon will make a cut or incision in your abdomen. He will remove a portion or all of your stomach through the incision, as well as some nearby tissue such as your lymph nodes. He will check the nodes and confirm that the cancer has not spread. The surgeon will determine the best way to reconstruct the digestive tract, based on the type of operation that you have.

    What are the side effects of Gastrectomy?

    • Abdominal cramping

    • Pain

    • Diarrhoea

    • Light-headedness

    Living without a Stomach.

    The goal is to work towards settling into a "new normal" after surgery, allowing the body to heal and adjust over time to the stomach loss. Around the same time, it is necessary to try to eat as many calories as possible in order to prevent rapid weight loss in the first few months after surgery, and to take in nutrients that the body requires to aid with the healing. It can be difficult to start eating and drinking again and takes a concentrated effort. It is a lot of work and sometimes it seems like life is all of a sudden about eating and drinking - what, when, where, and how much. You may lose familiar feelings of appetite, replaced by feelings of weakness and loneliness. Eating and drinking is out of necessity in the beginning, soon it will become a habit and gradually restore the willingness to eat and enjoy the food.

    Surgery in Liver Cancer


    What is Hepatectomy?

    A partial hepatectomy, is a kind of Surgery that is performed to remove cancerous tumours from the liver. It is also called a resection of the liver. Because this organ has the remarkable ability to regenerate itself, it can sometimes restore its mass to make up for the tissue lost through Surgery. Liver resection may be advised to resolve Colorectal Cancer that has spread to the liver and help prevent further metastasis.

    A physician should generally decide whether a patient is a candidate for a partial hepatectomy by assessing the following:

    • The extent of the cancer - Large or multiple tumours of the liver, as well as tumours that affect different lobes of the liver, may complicate or prevent surgical removal.

    • The location of the tumours - Liver tumours found near the blood vessels may be inoperable; alternative therapies can include intra-arterial Chemotherapy and chemoembolization.

    • The extent of the Surgery required to remove the entire tumour - A significant portion of healthy liver tissue must remain after Surgery to ensure proper functioning and regeneration of the organ.

    • The overall function of the organ - Patients with impaired liver function due to cirrhosis generally cannot tolerate a hepatectomy.

    • The patient's overall health - A patient must be healthy enough to undergo Surgery and the following rehabilitation period.

    How is Hepatectomy performed?

    The Surgery is conducted under general anaesthesia and takes three to four hours to complete. The patient lies face-up and both arms are spread away from the body. Often, surgeons use a heating pad and wrappings around the arms and legs to reduce body temperature losses during the operation. The abdomen of the patient is opened by an incision into the upper abdomen and another incision of the midline-extension up to the xiphoid (the cartilage at the bottom of the rib cage). Then the principal steps of a partial hepatectomy proceed as follows:

  • Freeing the liver. The first responsibility of the surgeon is to free the liver by cutting the long fibres that wrap it.

  • Removal of segments. Once the surgeon has freed the liver, they start the removal of the liver segments. The surgeon should be very careful to prevent rupturing important blood vessels to avoid haemorrhage.

  • What are the side effects of Hepatectomy?



    Complications from anaesthesia

    Blood clots


    Surgery in Endometrial Cancer


    What is hysterectomy?

    The surgical removal of a uterus is called a hysterectomy. Hysterectomy in Endometrial cancer usually involves removing ovaries and fallopian tubes. Your doctor may also do a Biopsy of the pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes to determine the stage and grade of cancer. Most endometrial cancer cases are diagnosed at the earliest stage, when it can be cured. Your Surgery will depend on how much of the endometrial cancer will affect the reproductive system.

    A total hysterectomy is the removal of cervix and uterus.

    A total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, and the ovaries. This is the most common Surgery performed for endometrial cancer.

    A radical hysterectomy is the removal of the cervix, uterus, surrounding tissue, upper part of the vagina, and usually the pelvic lymph nodes.

    A hysterectomy may be done with an incision (cut) in the abdomen. A laparoscopic hysterectomy is also possible. General anesthesia is used in both procedures. The type of hysterectomy you have depends on your medical history and general health status, and on the severity of cancer. During the surgery, pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes are biopsied to help assess the stage of cancer.

    How is Hysterectomy performed?

    Abdominal hysterectomy: In this type of hysterectomy, an incision in the lower abdomen removes the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. An abdominal incision provides a large opening into the abdomen that allows the surgeon to see the organs easily and find out the extent of the cancer. It leaves a scar on the abdomen (generally 5 inches). After an abdominal hysterectomy the usual hospital stay is 3 days.

    Laparoscopic hysterectomy: A tiny camera and special instruments are used to perform laparoscopic Surgery. The surgeon puts these instruments in the abdomen through multiple small incisions. In a laparoscopic hysterectomy, the surgeon will see the organs clearly enough on a monitor to determine the location and severity of the cancer. After a laparoscopic hysterectomy you may stay in hospital for 1 or 2 days. Or you could go home the same day.

    What are the side effects of Hysterectomy?

    • Fever.

    • Difficulty urinating.

    • Urinary incontinence.

    • Continued heavy bleeding

    • The formation of scar tissue (adhesions).

    • Infection.

    • Blood clots in the legs (thrombophlebitis) or lungs (pulmonary embolus).

    • Injury to other organs, such as the bladder or bowel.

    • A collection of blood at the surgical site (hematoma).

    Surgery in Laryngeal Cancer


    What is laryngectomy?

    Laryngectomy is the removal of a portion or all of the voice box. The larynx, which is also called the speech box, has different roles. Its principal function is to allow air to enter and leave the lungs. The larynx also acts to prevent food, liquids and saliva from falling into the lungs, which can cause pneumonia.

    How is laryngectomy performed?

    Partial laryngectomy

    A partial laryngectomy can be used for the treatment of some laryngeal cancers. The procedure involves surgically extracting the part of the larynx that has been infected. Many of your vocal cords will be left in place, and you will still be able to speak, but your voice may be bulky or low. While your larynx heals, you might find it difficult to breathe. Your surgeon may need to make a temporary hole in your neck, which connects to a tube through which you can breathe. This is called transient tracheostomy. Once your larynx has healed, you can remove the tube, leaving a small scar.

    Total laryngectomy

    Total laryngectomy is used to treat advanced laryngeal cancer. The treatment includes removing the entire larynx. You may also need to remove nearby lymph nodes, if the cancer has spread to them. You will not be able to talk in the normal way because your vocal cords will be cut. There are also varieties of ways to help recover your voice. When you have complete laryngectomy, your surgeon may also make a permanent hole in your neck, called a stoma, to help you breathe. Training will be given on how to keep your stoma clean. At first, getting a stoma may seem overwhelming and scary, but after a few months, most people get accustomed to it.

    What are the side effects of laryngectomy?

    • Lose the ability to speak normally.

    • Difficulty breathing.

    • Affect your ability to swallow.

    • Development of a fistula

    Surgery in Lung Cancer


    What is Lobectomy?

    A lobectomy is a surgical operation to remove one of the lobes of the lungs. Parts of the lungs are called lobes. The right lung has three lobes. The left lung has two lobes. When a problem is found in just a part of a lung, a lobectomy may be performed. This removes the infected lobe, and the remaining healthy lung tissue will function as normal. A lobectomy is most commonly performed during a Surgery called thoracotomy. The chest is opened during that type of Surgery. The cut is most commonly made under the nipple on the front of the arm, and wraps under the shoulder blade around the back. To extract the lobe, the surgeon obtains access to the chest cavity through the exposed ribs.

    In certain cases, a lobectomy is performed using a Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). This procedure is less invasive. Three or four small cuts are used, instead of one large cut. Tiny instruments are placed into the cavity of the chest. One of the instruments is known as a thoracoscope. It is a tube has a light and a tiny camera, which sends images to a computer screen. Through the other cuts, the small tools are inserted to perform the Surgery.

    How is Lobectomy performed?

    A lobectomy usually needs an inpatient stay. The way the procedure is performed may vary. It depends on your condition and your surgeon's methods. In most cases, the procedure will follow this process:

    You will be given general anaesthesia that lets you sleep through the procedure. A cut shall be made on the front of your chest. The cut goes round to your back under your arm. When the ribs are visible, a special tool will be used to spread them apart. The surgeons will remove the lung lobe. The cut is then closed with either stitches or staples. Your doctors may put a thin tube (epidural catheter) in the lower spine area. This is done to send Pain medicine to the back.

    What are the side effects of Lobectomy?

    • Infection

    • Air in the space between the lung covering

    • Bleeding

    • A tube-like opening between the airway and pleural space

    • An area of pus in the chest cavity

    • Fluid in the space between the lung and inner chest wall

    Surgery in Breast Cancer


    What is Mastectomy?

    Mastectomy is usually used as a treatment of Breast Cancer. Sometimes, a mastectomy is performed to prevent Breast Cancer in women who have a high risk for it. Mastectomy is the surgical removal a breast. Sometimes other tissues, lymph nodes near the breast are also removed. Your doctor may suggest you to have a mastectomy if:

    • The tumour is large

    • The tumour involves more than one area of your breast

    • Using Radiation therapy is not advised

    • The size of your breast determine the type of mastectomy required.

    Sometimes, a mastectomy may be advised even before a cancer develops, in women who has a high risk for Breast Cancer. This includes women who have genes associated to breast cancer, like the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. In these situations, a mastectomy is performed as a preventive measure, to keep Breast Cancer from occurring.

    What are the types of Mastectomy?

    Partial Mastectomy

    A partial mastectomy is the removal of a portion of the breast, in order to remove the cancer. It may be a whole segment or quadrant of tissue. Sometimes, the surgeon will remove some of the lining over the chest muscles also.

    Skin-Sparing Mastectomy

    Skin-Sparing Mastectomy is the removal of the breast, nipple, areola, and sentinel lymph node but not the breast skin. Women opt for this procedure when they intend to have breast reconstruction.

    Simple Mastectomy (also known as total mastectomy)

    This Surgery is performed to remove the breast, nipple, areola, and nearby lymph nodes. It leaves the chest wall and distant lymph nodes intact.

    Modified Radical Mastectomy

    Modified Radical Mastectomy is the surgical removal of the whole breast and nearby lymph nodes but often leaves the chest wall intact.

    How is Mastectomy done?

    A mastectomy typically requires a hospital stay. Generally, a mastectomy follows this process:

    The surgeon will make an incision in the breast. The type of cut depends on what type of mastectomy you have. The underlying tissue will be separated and gently cut loose. After removal of the breast or breast tissue, nearby lymph nodes may be removed. If you opt for a breast reconstruction along with mastectomy, a plastic surgeon will take over the operation. Breast tissue and any other extracted tissues are sent to the laboratory for analysis. The wound is sealed using adhesive lines or stiches. A sterile bandage or dressing is used to cover the wound.

    What are the side effects of Mastectomy?

    • Short-term (temporary) breast swelling

    • Breast soreness

    • Hardness due to scar tissue that can form at the site of the cut (incision)

    • Wound infection or bleeding

    • Swelling (lymphedema) of the arm, if lymph nodes were removed

    • Pain in the breast that has been removed (phantom breast pain).

    Surgery in Kidney Cancer


    What is Nephrectomy?

    The treatment of many kidney cancers starts by removing the primary tumour in a Surgery called a nephrectomy. The procedure aims to remove the main tumour and infected tissue involved in the kidney. Although nephrectomy is the most common treatment for kidney cancer, it might not be appropriate in some cases. Your urologist can clarify the factors that affect whether you can have nephrectomy.

    There are two basic types of nephrectomies for kidney cancer.

    A partial nephrectomy involves removing only the part of the kidney that has the tumour.

    A radical nephrectomy involves removal of the entire kidney and often the removal of the adrenal gland above the kidney, the surrounding fatty tissue, and the lymph nodes adjacent to the kidney.

    How is nephrectomy performed?

    The anaesthesiologist will get you ready for Surgery. Various methods of anaesthesia may be used to keep you safe from Pain during your surgical recovery. The surgeon will make an incision to expose the tumour and then remove it. The incision is closed after the surgeon has finished the procedure, and a dressing is applied. You will spend some time in a surgical recovery room where you will be monitored when you wake up from the anaesthetic effects. Depending on the severity of your operation, you may continue your recovery in intensive care, where you will be closely monitored.

    What are the side effects of Nephrectomy?

    • Infection

    • Bleeding (haemorrhage) requiring blood transfusion

    • Post-operative pneumonia

    • Rare allergic reactions to anaesthesia

    • Death

    Surgery in oesophagus cancer


    What is Oesophagectomy?

    An oesophagectomy is a Surgery to treat oesophagus cancer by removing part of your food pipe or oesophagus. Oesophagus carries food from your mouth to your stomach. Your surgeon may also remove part of your stomach to make sure all of the cancer is completely taken out. The remaining part of your stomach will be rebuilt and attached to the remaining oesophagus.

    How is oesophagectomy performed?

    There are different ways to perform oesophagectomy Surgery.

    Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy, also known as a transthoracic esophagogastrectomy. In this procedure, incisions are made in the centre of your abdomen and in the back of your chest.

    In a Transhiatal oesophagectomy, your oesophagus is removed through two incisions, one in your neck and one in your abdomen.

    3-hole oesophagectomy, also known as McKeown oesophagectomy. In this procedure incisions are made in your abdomen, neck, and right upper back.

    During a minimally invasive oesophagectomy, a laparoscope is inserted into your belly and chest through multiple small incisions in your abdomen and back. A robot may be used to assist.

    What are the side effects of oesophagectomy?

    • Bleeding

    • Infection

    • Cough

    • Leakage from the surgical connection of the oesophagus and stomach

    • Changes in your voice

    • Acid or bile reflux

    • Nausea, Vomiting or diarrhoea

    • Respiratory complications, such as pneumonia

    • Swallowing difficulties (dysphagia)

    • Atrial fibrillation

    Surgery in testicular Cancer


    What is Orchiectomy?

    Orchiectomy is the removal of the testicles as a treatment of testicular cancer. It may also be performed to treat other conditions such as Prostate Cancer or in the event of severe trauma to one or both testes. The penis, the scrotum, and the pouch of skin that holds the testicles, are left intact.

    An orchiectomy is performed as a treatment for:

    • Testicular or Prostate Cancer

    • Male Breast Cancer

    • Cancer prevention in men with an undescended testicle after puberty

    • Severe trauma or injury to the testicle

    • Male-to-female gender reassignment surgery

    How is Orchiectomy performed?

    Simple orchiectomy

    One or both testicles is removed through a small cut in the scrotum. This may be performed to treat male Breast Cancer or Prostate Cancer when your doctor wants to limit the amount of testosterone produced by your body.

    Radical inguinal orchiectomy

    One or both testicles are removed through a small cut in the lower abdominal area, instead of the scrotum. This may be performed if you have found a lump in your testicle and your doctor wants to test your testicular tissue for cancer.

    Subcapsular orchiectomy

    In this procedure, the tissues around the testicles are removed from the scrotum. This allows to keep the scrotum intact so that it looks like nothing has been removed.

    Bilateral orchiectomy

    Both the testicles are removed in this procedure. This may be performed if you have Prostate Cancer or male Breast Cancer.

    What are the side effects of orchiectomy?

    Orchiectomy may cause sudden hormone changes in the body. Side effects from hormone changes may include:

    • Sterility.

    • Loss of sexual interest.

    • Erection problems.

    • Hot flashes.

    • Larger breasts

    • Weight gain.

    • Loss of muscle mass.

    • Thin or brittle bones.

    Surgery in Lung Cancer


    What is Pneumonectomy

    A pneumonectomy is a type of Surgery performed as a treatment of Lung Cancer by removing an entire lung. This approach is sometimes recommended for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer treatment, especially if the tumor is situated in the middle of a lung, or the cancer has affected a significant portion of the pulmonary artery or airways.

    How is Pneumonectomy performed?

    A pneumonectomy is usually performed using a thoracotomy. It involves making an incision in the chest wall to remove a cancerous lung along with some nearby tissues and lymph nodes.

    The two main types of pneumonectomy are:

    Traditional pneumonectomy - A single lung is removed entirely.

    Extrapleural pneumonectomy - An entire lung is removed along with a portion of the diaphragm, a part of the sac that covers the heart and the membrane that lines the inside of the chest.

    What are the side effects of Pneumonectomy?

    • Need for a machine to help you breathe (ventilator/respirator).

    • Bleeding.

    • Irregular heartbeat

    • Blood clot in the lung

    • Pneumonia.

    • Infection at the incision.

    Surgery in Thyroid Cancer


    What is Thyroidectomy?

    Thyroidectomy is surgical removal of the thyroid gland. It is the most common Surgery for thyroid cancer. It is done through an incision, a few inches long, across the front of the neck. Thyroidectomy are of two types:

    Total thyroidectomy: When the entire thyroid gland is removed.

    Near-total thyroidectomy: When nearly all of the thyroid gland is removed.

    How is Thyroidectomy performed?

    Standard thyroidectomy. The surgeon makes a small incision near the base or middle of the neck. This gives the surgeon direct access to the patient's thyroid gland.

    Endoscopic thyroidectomy. In this procedure, the surgeon makes a single small incision. The Surgery is similar to a standard thyroidectomy except that a scope and video monitor are used to guide the procedure rather than surgical loupe magnification, which is special eyewear.

    Robotic thyroidectomy. The surgeon makes a cut and then uses a robotic tool to perform the thyroidectomy.

    What are the side effects on Thyroidectomy?

    Potential risks of a thyroidectomy include:

    • Bleeding or infection

    • Difficulty breathing

    • Permanent hoarseness or weak voice due to nerve damage

    • Injury to parathyroid glands or their blood supply, which can cause low blood Calcium levels and sometimes muscle spasms or other neuromuscular symptoms.

    Surgery for Pancreatic Cancer


    What is pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    The Whipple procedure is also known as pancreaticoduodenectomy. It is the main surgical treatment for Pancreatic Cancer. During this procedure, surgeons remove the head of the pancreas, most of the duodenum, a portion of the bile duct, the gallbladder and associated lymph nodes. Sometimes, the surgeon may remove the entire pancreas, the entire duodenum and a portion of the stomach. Most patients stay in the hospital for one to two weeks following the Whipple procedure.

    How is pancreaticoduodenectomy done?

    There are two common types of Whipple procedures:

    The conventional Whipple: The conventional Whipple is the removal of the head of the pancreas, the duodenum, and a portion of the stomach. The gallbladder and a portion of the bile duct are also removed. Then the remaining stomach, bile duct and pancreas are reconnected to the digestive tract to restore movement of ingested food and digestive enzymes.

    The pylorus-preserving Whipple: In a pylorus-sparing Whipple, the pylorus section of stomach is not removed during the Surgery.

    A Whipple procedure typically takes between 4 and 6 hours depending on the location and extent of the tumour.

    What are the side effects of pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    • Pain

    • Constipation

    • Feeling sick

    • Surgical leaks